Integration and effectiveness of formal environmental education in Africa and India: Review
Tsegay Kahsay Gebrekidan 1 * , Gebremariam Gebrezgabher Gebremedhin 1
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1 Department of Environmental Science, Adigrat University, Tigray, ETHIOPIA* Corresponding Author

Abstract

Increasing environmental awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and motivation to address environmental challenges and improve the environment are the main goals of environmental education (EE). Using a goal-based, process-based education evaluation model and parameters like the integration of EE in environmental policy, the potential rich environmental content of the curriculum, and education about, in/through, and for the environment using secondary data, it was possible to evaluate the effectiveness of EE. With the exception of India, the legal evolution of EE across Africa, particularly after the Earth Submit Declaration, has been similar and attempted to be incorporated at the legislative level. In India and Tanzania, where EE is about, in/through, and for the environment practiced, it is integrated into the curriculum at all grade levels. These countries also tried to promote indigenous knowledge and practical-based education on local and global environmental aspects. Whereas in Ethiopia, in lower grades, EE is about the school and little in/through the environment and hardly for the environment, in South Africa, there is hardly any structured, harmonized, and effective practical implementation of EE. Due to fewer government concerns, generalized integration, a lack of a well-written strategy, and financial and technological constraints, EE in Africa is not applied, is ground-based and is ineffective. Therefore, it should incorporate EE in all subjects at all school levels and needs further study on the effectiveness of EE.

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Review Article

EUR J SUSTAIN DEV RES, 2024, Volume 8, Issue 2, Article No: em0253

https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/14368

Publication date: 01 Apr 2024

Online publication date: 14 Mar 2024

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