EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH

European Journal of Sustainable Development Research (EJOSDR, e-ISSN: 2542-4742) is a quarterly, double-blinded peer-reviewed journal that analyses topics related to environmental sustainability. The journal invites scientific articles that explore, analyze and review research on the relation between nature, environmental science and humanity. It is encouraged to submit articles that aim to contribute to the science of sustainability by offering new solutions or revisiting conventional methods. The journal accepts scholarly works that focus on the individual as well as policy-making levels.

The journal is an Open Access journal.

There is no submission or publication fee currently.

CURRENT ISSUE

Volume 6, Issue 4, 2022

Research Article
Modeling Future Impacts on Land Cover of Rapid Expansion of Hazelnut Orchards: A Case Study on Samsun, Turkey
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(4), em0193, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12167
ABSTRACT: Land-use/land-cover (LULC) simulation models predict the long-term effects of LULC changes under various scenarios. Patch-level land use simulation (PLUS) is a recently developed software that uses a rule-mining framework for LULC modelling. With a market share of 76% in the world, hazelnut is a strategic crop for Turkey. The hazelnut orchards have grown in Turkey since the first law was issued on 21 October 1935. This study was carried out to model the hazelnut orchards for 2030, 2042, 2054, and 2066 based on Samsun province and show the future impacts on land use types. Samsun was chosen as a case study due to the rapid expansion of hazelnut groves since 2006. According to PLUS results, by the year 2030, the increase in the hazelnut groves in Samsun is predicted as 9.38%, and hazelnut fields will be formed by the main transformation of open spaces with little or no vegetation, shrub and/or herbaceous vegetation associations, and forest; and this transformation will have severe effects on the ecosystem. The results clearly showed that hazelnut cultivation areas would continue to increase in the future and revealed that policymakers would need to conduct new regulations for environmental sustainability and to maintain Turkey’s power in this crop.
Research Article
Determinants of Greenhouse Gas Emissions
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(4), em0194, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12176
ABSTRACT: This paper examined the determinants (decomposed into enablers and de-enablers) of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to deepen the debate on enhancing the implementation of the social cost of carbon or carbon pricing. Data from world development indicators were utilized in this study. The study leverages the autoregressive distributive lag model, pairwise granger causality, and impulse response function tests. This study found that there is a long-run relationship between selected economic indicators and GHG emissions in the global economy. In the long run, the GHG emissions enablers are FDI inflow and fossil fuel consumption. On the other hand, de-enablers of GHG emissions are GDP growth rate and merchandise trade. However, gas, oil, and coal use for electricity and fertilizer consumption have mixed finding across the regions. Also, the study observed that there exists no causality between GHG emissions and selected finance-related variables. A 1% shock in GHG emissions generates monetary volatility. Based on the findings that global trade generates a similar impact on GHG emissions across high-income countries, low-income countries, and middle-income countries. This study recommends the imposing of carbon tax and cap-and-trade on the GHGs polluting sectors and countries involved in the production and distribution of economic goods (activities) enabling GHG emissions.
Research Article
Energy Consumption and Regional Development in the Matopiba Region Between 2000 and 2020
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(4), em0195, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12192
ABSTRACT: The region called the acronym Matopiba is an area composed of part of the states of Maranhão, Tocantins, Piaui, and Bahia. Agricultural production in the region is marked by large harvests of grains, especially soybeans, corn, and cotton. Considering that electricity is a vital development infrastructure, the present study analyzed the electricity consumption in the Matopiba region located in the state of Piauí was related to the total GDP (GDP), agriculture GDP (AGDP), and human development index (HDI) between the years 2000 to 2020. The results showed that in 2000 there was a strong positive correlation between GDP and AGDP (0.92), a moderate positive correlation between GDP and energy consumption (0.60), as well as AGDP and electricity consumption (0.67). Results indicated a low negative correlation between the HDI and the other variables. In 2020, the results indicated a strong positive correlation between GDP and AGDP (0.83), and a high positive correlation between GDP and energy consumption (0.83), while AGDP showed a low positive correlation with the consumption of electricity (0.46). The HDI, on the other hand, showed a low negative correlation with AGDP and a low positive correlation with GDP. On the other hand, it showed a moderate positive correlation with electricity consumption. It was also verified that there was a substantial rise in the HDI in the municipalities studied between 2000 and 2020, an increase in the region’s GDP and AGDP, and electricity consumption in the period studied. Therefore, we concluded that the increase in the electricity consumed in the region in the last 20 years is a positive indicator of Matopiba’s regional development.
Review Article
A Review of the Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Solid Waste Management
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(4), em0196, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12221
ABSTRACT: Pandemics affect the very existence of human life and their effects going beyond human life to the environment. Natural resources within evolving city milieus require sustainable environmental management. In the COVID-19 pandemic, disposal of face masks in rivers have been witnessed illustrating the implications of COVID-19 on solid waste management and ultimately on the environment. The risks associated and enhanced from improper waste management continues to have adverse impact on water bodies like rivers further aggravating the previous conditions of pollution, which contribute to the effects of climate change. Interestingly, COVID-19 pandemic has had positive environmental effects especially during the lockdowns evidenced by reduced travelling hence reduced global carbon dioxide emissions thereby resulting in improved air quality. However, the pandemic has imposed a further strain on the municipal waste system of many developing economies whose waste management structures and frameworks are still straining from doubled waste generation. As part of the COVID-19 protocol, advisory of wearing face masks was made mandatory for prevention purposes. Unfortunately, a constraint exists in developing protocols towards the management of the used face masks, gloves and PPEs. Increased generation of used face masks and gloves further accelerates indiscriminate dumping of these wastes not only in water bodies but also in dumpsites. Burning of these wastes will lead to increased production of greenhouse gases that have been cited as contributing to climate change. Beyond the COVID-19 pandemic, it is advisable for governments in developing countries to treat waste management as an essential service to avoid future foreseeable and unforeseeable adverse impacts on the environment.
Research Article
Performance and Emission Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine Running on a Blend of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and Biodiesel Produced from Orange Peel
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(4), em0197, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12233
ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the performance and emission characteristics of an orange peel biodiesel blended with cashew nut shell liquid. It investigates the efficacy of cashew nut shell liquid in reducing nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions resulting from the combustion of the biodiesel, while optimizing its performance.
The biodiesel was prepared via transesterification. It was obtained by reacting orange peel oil produced through Soxhlet extraction with methanol in the presence of NaOH. The biodiesel was blended with cashew nut shell liquid in the ratio 70%:30% (B70).
Experimental results demonstrate that blending cashew nut shell liquid with orange peel biodiesel causes a slight decrease in NOX emission. B70 generates 150 ppm of NOX, while B100 and diesel produce 159 ppm and 193 ppm, respectively. The hydrocarbon emission of B70 was 8% lower than that of B100 and 22.3% lower than that of diesel. As regards CO and CO2 emission, B70 performs better than B100 and diesel. The performance parameters were computed at brake powers of 2.5 kW, 5.0 kW, 7.5 kW, and 10 kW. In comparison to diesel and B100, B70 has higher brake thermal efficiency at all loads. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of B70 is higher than that of diesel, but less than that of B100 at 2.5 kW and 5.0 kW. At 7.5 kW and 10 kW, the BSFC of B70 is higher than that of B100 and diesel. Conclusively, B70 gives optimal performance and less emission. Hence, cashew nut shell liquid is a good additive.
Technical Note
Uranium Mining Techniques and Waste Management
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(4), em0198, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12273
ABSTRACT: In this paper, mining techniques of uranium were investigated. Basically three type of mining techniques are applied. Basic mining techniques are underground mining, open pit or surface mining and in-situ leaching mining methods. Each of them has several advantages and disadvantages to the other. Specifications of each technique was evaluated in this study. Uranium mine wastes present the most significant waste management problem because of their large volume and their radioactivity. Most of the constituents in these radioactive wastes are found naturally in soils and bedrock. During the uranium mining and milling operations, natural radioactive material changes its chemical and physical form so that their potential for mobility is increased. The mobility results leakage to the environment and the public.
Research Article
Transposed Second-Generation Environmental Kuznets Curve, Changing Climate Patterns, and Selected Development Indicators
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(4), em0199, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12274
ABSTRACT: This paper examined the impact of changing climate patterns (represented by square and cubic CO2 emissions) on selected development drivers (proxy by gross domestic product [GDP] per capita [GDPC] and official development assistance [ODA]). Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) provided the theoretical backdrop of this study, referred to as the core second-generation EKC (SGEKC) hypothesis. SGEKC was modified to obtain the transposed SGEKC. The transposed SGEKC was conceptualized based on the one-way criticism of the EKC. An unbalanced PMG (ARDL) method was utilized to investigate the impact of the changing climate patterns on GDPPC–(to capture EKC hypothesis) and ODA–(to capture pollution haven hypothesis) in the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ). This study, therefore, leveraged data from world development indicators between 1970 and 2019. The result showed that the one-way impact of CO2 emissions on GDPC has a long-run N-shaped. The outcome of the GDPC model (in the transposed SGEKC hypothesis) is consistent with the core SGEKC hypothesis. On the other hand, the impact of CO2 emissions on the ODA showed an inverted N-shaped in the long run. The inverted N-shaped relationship does not support pollution-haven hypothesis in the long-run. The results, therefore, imply that the changing climate patterns have a more disruptive impact on income per capita and less on ODA. In the short-run, the result showed the existence of an inverted-N and N-shapes for GDPC (SGEKC does not hold) and ODA (presence of pollution haven) respectively. In conclusion, changing climate patterns present a long-run threat to the economy of WAMZ which in turn could disrupt economic agents’ interactions, de-optimize economic aggregates and economic equilibrium, as well as negatively affect the attainment of a long-run regional development objectives. This study recommends that WAMZ’s government(s) should fast-track the implementation of robust carbon pricing mechanism and abatement policy that would enable climate mitigation policy, improve the regions nationally determined contributions (NDCs) targets, and insulate the economies from policy uncertainty associated with climate change.
Review Article
Impact of Biodiesel Engine Performance on Operations and the Environment: A Literature Review
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(4), em0200, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12314
ABSTRACT: Fossil fuels have posed a great danger to the existence of living things in the world, and pollution is wreaking havoc on the planet’s ecosystems. Global fuel consumption has risen precipitously because of urbanization, industrialization, and an ever-increasing human population. It has become necessary to consider alternatives to petroleum-based fuels such as diesel and gasoline considering our current overdependence on these traditional sources of energy. In this scenario, biodiesel presents an excellent opportunity. Biodiesel is highly replicable since it is made mostly from renewable resources, such as food and non-edible plants. Biodiesel cannot be used directly in engines because of its high viscosity. The relevant literature is categorized in this study. This research also tries to highlight the benefits of utilizing biodiesel and the advances made by researchers. Various articles about biodiesel fuel and its blends in diesel and engines were gathered and sorted depending on the blending techniques used (complete substitution without diesel or partial substitution). The use of biodiesel in engines and its ability to compete with fossil fuel diesel in performance were among the topics covered in this research.
Biodiesel’s effect on engine performance and environmental impact will be examined in this article. The study reveals that B20 biodiesel will be a replacement for fossil fuel diesel as an alternate fuel. The results reveal that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for B20 biodiesel are identical to diesel and hence can serve as a potential alternative to petroleum-based fuels.