Keyword: external

5 results found.

Research Article
Thermal Performance Assessment of External Wall Construction for Energy-Efficient Buildings
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(3), em0189,
ABSTRACT: Building envelope such as external walls are still constructed from poor materials which results in higher heating and cooling loads thereby raising energy bills. Improving building energy efficiency with advanced technologies is being sought. In this context, a numerical study was conducted to solve the coupled heat transfers through a standard wall structure used in Libyan residential buildings. Different techniques were compared to reduce the thermal transmittance of the traditional wall structure for saving energy including the application of radiant shield, low-e coating, insulating filling and external insulation. The numerical results revealed that the thermal radiation inside the cavities of hollow block is important and accounts for 21% of total heat transfer, while conductive and convective heat transfer contributes by 65% and 14% from the total, respectively. The obtained thermal transmittance value of the common wall structure was considered as high as 2.33 W/m2·K due to lower resistance of wall elements. The adoption of 50 mm layer of expanded polystyrene insulation (EPS) to the exterior wall showed the best thermal performance with a reduction of thermal transmittance by 45%. On the other hand, filling the interior of cavities with EPS resulted in a 37% reduction of thermal transmittance compared to 20% of using 3 mm aluminum foil as a radiant barrier in the middle of the cavities. The last case was less effective with a reduction of almost 10% when a commercial coating of 0.4 surface emissivity was applied to the interior of cavities.
Research Article
The External Cost of Electricity Generation: An Applicable Approach for Environmental Decision-Making on Electricity Exportation Strategy
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0165,
ABSTRACT: The Burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, fuel oil, natural gas, and diesel in power sector, has become one of the major sources of air pollutants, namely COX, NOX and SOX. These are thought to adversely affect the environment and human health. This paper assesses the external cost of electricity production from fossil fuel power plants in Iran using the Extern-E study. In addition, the future of average amount of emissions and their external cost was predicted according to the development of Iran’s power generation system. Investigation of power generation planning in Iran from 2013 to 2023 shows that the average emissions of PM10, SO2, CO, and CO2 will reduce by 26.7%, 54.2%, 65.4%, and 20%, respectively, in fossil power plants. Moreover, it was predicted that the average external cost of power generation in 2023 would decrease up to 28.9%, 27.6%, and 23.1% in low, medium, and high scenarios, respectively. Moreover, analyzing the trend of Iran’s electricity exportation and considering the prospect of Iran’s energy sector, we claim that substitution of old gas power plants with high throughput combined cycle will help achieve the goal of Iran’s power generation development more sustainably.
Research Article
Global Finance, Competitiveness, and Sustainable Development Goals in Emerging and Least Developing Economies (ELDCs): A Review of Literature
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(3), em0125,
ABSTRACT: This paper aims to provide a healthy review of literature on the global imperativeness of the term global finance and competitiveness to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We employed a content analysis method to significantly explore the impact of global finance on financing for sustainable development (FSD) through competitiveness. What are the lessons for ELDCs? From the reviewed literature, we observe that global financing causes a dual impact on competitiveness through the Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) effects. The study found that global FSD on the informal sector, social and environmental factors, as well as human development, is unarguably silent. Also, there is the multiplicity of function in the global financing mix. From the literature reviewed, we observed a positive link between SDGs, global finance, and competitiveness. SDGs differ across countries because the financing approach on competitiveness differs across countries. Thus, to achieve SDGs in ELDCs, global responses should be developed around improving internal and external competitiveness. These two types of competitiveness would be encompassing. Global financing should be directed to exploring economic, social, and environmental quality in internal and external competitiveness in ELDCs. This classification would deepen the World Economic Forum (WEF) GCI 4.0 based on innovative, efficiency and factors element. Thus inclusive growth and sustainable development could be strengthened through the application of internal and external competitiveness policies that would holistically upgrade the industrial and manufacturing competitiveness frontiers and gains from the global market share frontiers to accelerate SDGs in ELDCs.
Research Article
Addressing Externalities: An Externality Factor Tax-Subsidy Proposal
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(2), 19,
ABSTRACT: Nature is losing the war against capitalism and needs us to come to her defense in a way that may seem counter-intuitive. We, humans, have our ways of doing things and natural processes follow their own courses, often distinctly foreign to our inclinations. Our modern-day business practices are designed for the short term, are self-centered, tending toward precision and inevitably leading to environmental destruction. Natural processes, on the other hand, are intended for the long term, are generous, are highly imprecise and almost always lead to flourishing ecological systems. While humankind produces primarily negative externalities, nature produces almost exclusively positive externalities or no externalities at all. This paper discusses a way that both negative and positive anthropogenic externalities can be used to encourage ‘good consumption’ and to discourage ‘bad consumption’ for the benefit of natural ecological systems, human societies, family units, and our future generations.
Research Article
Internalizing Economic Externalities on the Macroeconomic Stage. Exploring and Expanding Paul Hawken’s The Ecology of Commerce: A Declaration of Sustainability for Globalized Solutions
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(1), 03,
ABSTRACT: The problem of finding the method and means of internalizing the costs of externalities has stumped economists since Arthur Pigou first presented this issue in 1920.  Since Pigou, several mainstream economists and alternative economists have attempted to further his ideas because of the promise of curbing consumer behaviors and thereby reducing detrimental activities such as the production of greenhouse gases. The current call for a carbon tax to stem the causes of Global Climate Change is just one example of a present day method of internalizing externalities.  Of all of the modern day proponents for a carbon tax and other forms of “green fees”, however, Paul Hawken is arguably the most ardent supporter, believing this to be the most effective method of stemming many of humankind’s pollution activities.  His best selling book The Ecology of Commerce, A Declaration of Sustainability is examined here further, in order to explore Hawken’s arguments for these kinds of microeconomic solutions and to expand on these ideas to include macroeconomic solutions as well. As Hawken and others have noted, global climate change presents a size issue that must be countered using global forces in addition to microeconomic solutions such as with green fees.  This paper explores how global problems such as global climate change can be countered with the aid of international organizations for the benefit of global citizens.