Assessment of Carbonised Wood-Flour Fillers on the Mechanical Properties of Natural Rubber Vulcanisates

Kevin Shegun Otoikhian 1, Adewale George Adeniyi 2, Ayo Mark Dada 3, Joshua O. Ighalo 2 *

EUROPEAN J SUSTAINAB DEV, Volume 3, Issue 4, Article No: em0097.

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In view of the need to enhance the mechanical properties of vulcanisates, this study evaluated the potentials of carbonised wood-flour in this regard. Samples of wood-flour were carbonised at 600 ℃ and 700 ℃. The characterisation results revealed an increase in the pH (7.14 to 8.99) and loss on ignition (76.32 to 82.04%) of the carbonised wood-flour with increase in the carbonisation temperature. There was also a significant decrease in moisture content (0.21 to 0.15%) and bulk density (0.63 to 0.51 g/ml) with increasing temperature. The mechanical properties of the carbonised wood-flour filled vulcanisates were improved in the domain of tensile strength (6.08 to 10.38 MPa and 7.19 to 12.65 MPa), tensile modulus (2.53 to 3.78 MPa and 2.68 to 3.96 MPa) and hardness (48.25 to 60.55 Shore A and 50.88 to 63.92 Shore A) as carbonisation temperature increases from 600 ℃ to 700 ℃ respectively. Meanwhile, other properties investigated decreased with increased filler loading and carbonisation temperature and these were EAB (501.03 to 312.58% and 460.28 to 309.56%), compression set (18.43 to 12.07% and 15.35 to 8.99%), abrasion resistance (28.65 to 20.53% and 38.24 to 23.06%) and flex fatigue (8.02 to 5.84% and 8.63 to 6.04%) from 600 ℃ to 700 ℃ respectively. The results revealed that carbonised wood-flour is an excellent filler for natural rubber vulcanisates to improve the mechanical properties for specialised applications.


rubber, wood-flour, vulcanisates, fillers, carbonisation




Otoikhian, K. S., Adeniyi, A. G., Dada, A. M., and Ighalo, J. O. (2019). Assessment of Carbonised Wood-Flour Fillers on the Mechanical Properties of Natural Rubber Vulcanisates. European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 3(4), em0097.

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