Volume 3, Issue 4, 2019
Sustainability Subjects in University Education - Development of a Comprehensive Indicator System and Quantitative Analysis of Degree Programs at German Universities
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0092, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5771
ABSTRACT: A new comprehensive evaluation system presented here allows to compare and to quantify education for a sustainable development (ESD) in degree programs. The evaluation is based on a criteria system working with three hierarchic levels. The highest level considers a list of 35 indicator terms. Primarily, the two most popular undergraduate (bachelor’s) degree programs in Germany (mechanical engineering, ME, and business administration, BA) have been reviewed for ESD contents based on the new evaluation scheme. Additionally we reviewed and quantified ESD subjects and their temporal changes in the entire bandwidth of degree programs of a university (Umwelt-Campus Birkenfeld, University of Applied Sciences Trier), back to 1999. Moreover, a spot check on international ME and BA bachelor’s degree programs was performed. Through our reviews, we found a high number of elective classes dedicated to ESD particularly in BA bachelor programs. However, the percentage of compulsory classes related to ESD is relatively low with 5-6 % in both ME and BA programs, respectively. The spot check on degree programs outside Germany revealed similar results. Analysing the time trend at Umwelt-Campus Birkenfeld, a considerable share of ESD that was part of the original diploma degrees was moved to what are now master’s degrees.
Investigation of Influence of Injector Opening Pressure and Nozzle Geometry on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of DI Diesel Engine with CAOME
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0093, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5787
ABSTRACT: The diminution of fossil fuels and stringent pollution norms obliging researchers to search for fuels that result in less pollution and the one that suits to power compressed ignition engines. In the current work the effect IOP (Injector opening pressure) and nozzle geometry on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled by Castor oil methyl esters (CAOME) is reported. For a 5-hole nozzle at 240 bar IOP the highest brake power is obtained (27.32%). Peak pressure gradual upturn was observed when the IOP was varied from 210 bar to 240 bar and the peak value of pressure is 79 bar at IOP of 240 bar.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0094, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5830
ABSTRACT: Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the major agricultural products of tropical West Africa in general and Nigeria in particular. In this study ASPEN plus V8.8 was used to develop a thermodynamic model for the pyrolysis of rice husk. The model was validated and found to be accurate especially on the domain of oil and gas yields. It was used to study the effect of temperature on the product yield and oil composition. The fluid products increase with temperature and an optimum of 60% can be obtained from rice husk. The optimum oil yield was 44.2% obtained at 400°C. The synthesis gas was composed basically of hydrogen gas, methane and traces of higher hydrocarbons, the char consisted of carbon and silicon oxide ash while the oil was made-up of acidic organic compounds, aldehydes, pyrolytic water and others. At 600°C, the predictions revealed an oil composition of 84.7% acids, 7.9% pyrolytic water, 7.42% aldehyde and traces of alcohol and other compounds. The results from the thermodynamic predictions showed that rice husk is an excellent feedstock for the biofuels production via the thermo-chemical energy conversion route. The study has provided a useful framework for proper comparisons of the energy potential between different biomass feedstock.
Effects of Combustion Vestibule Configuration on the Competence, Emissions and Combustion attributes of Direct Injection Diesel Prime Mover Powered with Diesel and Corn Oil Methyl Ester (CROME)
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0095, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5831
ABSTRACT: Combustion processes and emissions attributes squarely depend on combustion vestibule volume shapes relative to injector jet directions and cone angles. For injectors with more number of holes, these parameters change and may result in enhanced performance. By this we can make the gases to flow in different patterns compared to conventional engine and can anticipate higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and reduced emanations to meet stringent norms. Hence to optimize combustion chamber shapes (CCS) and vary squish, appropriate injection strategies are essential. In this occasion lab probes were conducted on a single cylinder four stroke open or induction swirl diesel engine using corn oil methyl ester (CROME) as fuel. For this variety of CCS were designed and manufactured. Injector with 6 numbers of hole and 0.2 mm orifice size was used to check its effects on the biodiesel powered engine. The suitable engine available was having Hemispherical Bowl Piston (HBP). To probe the effects of other CCS on the performance of diesel engine, Cylindrical Bowl Piston (CBP), Toroidal Bowl Piston (TBP) and Toroidal Re-entrant Bowl Piston (RBP) vestibule volume shapes were manufactured keeping ratio of compression same. For 100% replacement of diesel by biodiesel the injection pressures and injection timings tested were in the range of 210 bar to 250 bar and 19°bTDC to 27°bTDC which are based on our previous research works on other biodiesels. But the performance was maximised for 240 bar and 27°bTDC for all CCS which is reported in this paper. Engine variables such as fuel flow rate, brake power, torque, and temperature of exhaust smoke, combustion variables such as rate of heat release (HRR), peak pressure (PP), ignition delay (ID), combustion duration (CD), and exhaust emissions such as smoke opacity, HC, CO, and NOx, were measured. Results obtained with RBP shape and for CROME with 6 number of hole injector concluded in overall ameliorated competence with lesser emission levels of CO, HC and smoke, but NOx was almost same as that of diesel. Also reduced ID, CD and increased PP resulted in decreased burning time loss (BTL) increasing competence. Hence this research work shows that the CROME is also compatible and capable of replacing diesel in a diesel engine efficiently.
Numerical Simulation of Wind Impacts on Building Blocks: Towards Sustainable Architecture Strategies
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0096, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5859
ABSTRACT: The study of wind behavior around tall buildings is a critical issue in architectural and structural design. Therefore, Tall modern buildings are extremely sensitive to the wind. Thus, the assessment of wind loads to design these buildings is essential. Monitoring the wind, which is forcing extraordinary tall buildings is highly challenging. By looking at recent constructions in Iran, it is obvious that despite the fact that constructing tall buildings is spreading, there is less concentration on environmental factors such as wind’s aerodynamic. The purpose of this study is to introduce a theoretical framework. Hence, by using CFD simulation, investigating on wind speed in various regions of the tall-triangular building have been focused. Finally, Autodesk Flow Design 2014 software is utilized to present a CFD simulation of a building model with a triangular footprint, Rounded Corner aerodynamic correction, and Set-back aerodynamic form. These simulations have been looking forward to finding out about how can aerodynamic forms affect pressure zone reduction in buildings and reduce wind flow pattern in urban regions.
Assessment of Carbonised Wood-Flour Fillers on the Mechanical Properties of Natural Rubber Vulcanisates
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0097, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5860
ABSTRACT: In view of the need to enhance the mechanical properties of vulcanisates, this study evaluated the potentials of carbonised wood-flour in this regard. Samples of wood-flour were carbonised at 600 ℃ and 700 ℃. The characterisation results revealed an increase in the pH (7.14 to 8.99) and loss on ignition (76.32 to 82.04%) of the carbonised wood-flour with increase in the carbonisation temperature. There was also a significant decrease in moisture content (0.21 to 0.15%) and bulk density (0.63 to 0.51 g/ml) with increasing temperature. The mechanical properties of the carbonised wood-flour filled vulcanisates were improved in the domain of tensile strength (6.08 to 10.38 MPa and 7.19 to 12.65 MPa), tensile modulus (2.53 to 3.78 MPa and 2.68 to 3.96 MPa) and hardness (48.25 to 60.55 Shore A and 50.88 to 63.92 Shore A) as carbonisation temperature increases from 600 ℃ to 700 ℃ respectively. Meanwhile, other properties investigated decreased with increased filler loading and carbonisation temperature and these were EAB (501.03 to 312.58% and 460.28 to 309.56%), compression set (18.43 to 12.07% and 15.35 to 8.99%), abrasion resistance (28.65 to 20.53% and 38.24 to 23.06%) and flex fatigue (8.02 to 5.84% and 8.63 to 6.04%) from 600 ℃ to 700 ℃ respectively. The results revealed that carbonised wood-flour is an excellent filler for natural rubber vulcanisates to improve the mechanical properties for specialised applications.
Achieving Sustainable Development Goals in the Niger Delta: A Corporate Social Responsibility Pathway
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0098, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5877
ABSTRACT: Is corporate social responsibility (CSR) practice of international oil companies contributing to the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals in the Niger Delta? The international community prescribes a role for business in the good of society. In a similar vein, a significant segment of the literature suggests a positive role for CSR practice. However, adequate analysis of how this is unfolding remains a task yet to be accomplished. This paper examines whether CSR practice in the aforesaid region is contributing to the attainment of SDGs. It focuses on the new CSR model – Global Memorandum of Understanding (GMoU) – initiated in 2005 and 2006 by Chevron and Shell respectively, specifically in relation to goals number one, two and three, which focus on poverty, hunger, better health, and well-being. Relying on data generated from secondary sources, the paper addresses the aforementioned question, and argues that recent oil multinational companies’ CSR practice is yet to properly respond to the development needs of local community people.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0099, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5878
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research is to analyze inclusion of sustainable development principles in relevant legislation as normative concepts. For the purpose of this research, Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo and 22 laws are analyzed regarding the level of the incorporation of sustainable development principles within their provisions and field of regulation. The legal basis for sustainable development lies in the Constitution of Kosovo under the Chapter on Economic Relations promoting wellbeing for all citizens encouraging a sustainable economic development. The research identified nine laws including more than one of the principles, six laws that treat sustainable development in very general terms, and seven laws that do not include anything regarding the principles, although their scope has significant impacts in sustainable economic, social, and environmental development of the country. The most prominent principle was sustainable use of resources; however, principles pertaining to the use of local resources and social justice were not found in any of current legal provisions. Laws on environmental protection, nature conservation and water include the most sustainable development principles. However, although the current legislation might be considered satisfactory regarding the extent to which it includes sustainable development principles, Kosovo is far from a sustainability path. This is related to the post-war situation of the country, unclear economic development directions, weak law enforcement, and poor cooperation of horizontal and vertical lines of public authorities and government agencies.
Performance Evaluation and parametric optimization of a Heat Sink for Cooling of Electronic Devices with Entropy Generation Minimization
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0100, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5896
ABSTRACT: Thermal management is essential for electronics products. Experimental and CFD analysis of a heat sink for thermal management are represented. After analysis, compared with the experimental and computation analysis. Also, Entropy generation model, fluid flow model and heat transfer model are described. Total entropy generation calculated Sgen and entropy generation minimization are done for best utilization of heat sink for cost, size and better power management. Optimized heat sink by two method one Parametric Optimization and other Multi-variable optimization for minimizing entropy generation. From the results behaviour of mass flow rates with temperature, velocity, pressure drops and other parameters are analysed. The maximum temperature is located at heated base surface of heat sink, below the channel outlet, due to the low velocity of the fluid flow and resulting high concentration of heat flux. The combined conduction–convection heat transfer in the heat sink produces very complex three-dimensional heat flow pattern with large, longitudinal, upstream directed heat recirculation zones in the highly conducting aluminium materials, where the fluid and solid are in direct contact. A detailed description of the average heat transfer coefficient, temperature, heat flux and Nusselt number was obtained. The goal of this research is to find the cooling of heat sink at minimum entropy generation for saving energy and sustainable development.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0101, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5905
ABSTRACT: In this paper, an attempt has been made to study ACS IES-15 micro-gasifier stove tested with Coconut shell. The testing procedure followed to evaluate the performance of the stove is as per the standard protocol WBT 4.2.3, and the results are analysed in terms of thermal efficiency, firepower, specific fuel consumption, turndown ratio and specific energy consumption. It was found that the thermal efficiency of fixed bed advanced micro-gasifier cook stove ACS IES-15 is 36.7±0.4%. Experiments have also been accomplished to provide data to investigate the performance parameters of the new stove. Prominently the turndown ratio was found to be 3.3 shows better control on the combustion of new stove. Economic analysis of the stove reveals better pay back period for coconut shell.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0102, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5947
ABSTRACT: Changes in land-use and land-cover have negatively affected the hydrology of Ragati River. It is one of the many rivers in Kenya that are considered as hot spots due to over abstraction especially during the dry season. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of land use and land cover changes which are important in ensuring sustainable use of the water resource. This study aimed at achieving the following objective: i)To analyze land use activities and land cover changes within Ragati River catchment area from 1990 to 2010; ii)To analyze the discharge of Ragati River during low flow and high flow seasons; iii) To assess the response of the sub-catchment to land-use and land cover change; iv) To evaluate the measures taken to mitigate negative effects of land use and land cover changes on the Ragati catchment. Satellite data was integrated in GIS to examine the extent of land-use and cover change in the sub-catchment. Both quantitative and qualitative data were used in this study. Various data types such as socio-economic data, land-use data, rainfall data and river flow data were collected in order to supplement information from landsat images. Analysis was done using classified landsat images of 1990, 2000 and 2009. SPSS and Ms Excel were used to analyse descriptive data. This study revealed that between 1988 and 2000 the dense forest decreased by 15%, land under perennial crops increased by 4.26%, cropland increased by 11%, settlement increased by 45.30% while closed woodland decreased by 4.6%. The results also show some change between 2000 and 2009. This can be attributed to increased campaign on reforestation of Mt. Kenya forest. Land under perennial crops decreased by 57%, crop land further by 4.04%, settlement increased by 49.41% while closed woodland decreased further by 3%. Over abstraction of water and river bank encroachment are some of the causes of changes in the volume of water flowing in the river. This study recommends that water users should be made aware of the importance of sustainable use of the water resource.
Wasteland Utilization for B. balcooa Cultivation: Socio-economic and Environmental Impacts through Bamboo-based Product Development
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0103, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5957
ABSTRACT: Declining fossil fuel and increasing CO2 emissions from non-renewable fuel leading us to climate change which signifies to reduce fossil fuel dependency and promotes bioenergy as renewable. To address such issue Abellon Clean Energy has developed captive farming of B. balcooa for environment friendly bio-energy feedstock cultivation in; 1112, 2223, 2964 and 6175 plants/hectare densities to understand cost of cultivation and its subsequent use in cottage industry, energy substitute and high value products. Farmers’ field trials were also performed as 1112 plants/hectare at three districts of Gujarat. The optimum plantation density was observed to be 1112 plants/hectare at captive and farmers’ field having approximately 57.70 MT/hectare biomass yield with 32-39 USD/MT cost of production. If 5% of waste land of India cultivates B. balcooa, with 50% biomass yield, 67.51 million metric tonne (mMT)/year bamboo biomass can be produced. Bamboos generates worth of 9788 million USD or 7696 million USD yearly from handicraft and construction respectively. Bamboo grown at marginal ecologies can fetch around 12.83 mMT/year from cottage industrial products worth of 16616 million USD reducing bamboo import. Waste from cottage industries can produce annually bio-energy pellets worth of 13987 million USD which could replace 63.18 mMT of coal or 21.60 mMT of LPG. Optionally 7560 million liters/year of bioethanol can be produced out of waste generated from incense stick processing worth 5670 million USD. Further 30% of bamboo from marginal land cultivation can produce 20.25 mMT/year of activated charcoal worth of 34425 million USD. Indirect employment of 8.66 million people is accounted for incense stick, pellet production, logistics, marketing, etc. B. balcooa has potential for carbon sequestration through marginal land development impacting India’s social, economic and environment conditions that also improves soil quality.