Production, optimization, and characterization of biodiesel from almond seed oil using a bifunctional catalyst derived from waste animal bones and almond shell
Oluwaseun Nneka Oni-Adimabua 1 , Favour Okechi Ifeanyi-Nze 2 * , Ayomide Khadijat Abimbolu 3 , Emmanuel Oluwakorede Opadokun 4 , Ayodeji Reynolds Omolusi 5 , Ebube Daniel Ezeokolie 6 , Esther Abigail Udoh 7 , Akinwunmi Rapheal Afuape 8 , Michael Oluwafemi Areola 9 , Prince-Timothy Bethany Wokoma 10 , Emmanuel Chinonso Odoh 11 , Stephen Ubanioshave Aiso 12 , Chibuike Justice Francis 13 , Joel Okechukwu Egbo 2 , Taiwo Aderonke Ayanleke 14 , Nana Okai Ankomah 15
More Detail
1 Department of Biochemistry, Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Oyo State, NIGERIA2 Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, NIGERIA3 Department of Natural Sciences, Middlesex University, London, UK4 Department of Biotechnology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, THAILAND5 National Biotechnology Research and Development Agency, Abuja, NIGERIA6 Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Owerri, Imo State, NIGERIA7 Department of Analytical Chemistry, Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, NIGERIA8 Department of Biochemistry, University of Lagos, Lagos, NIGERIA9 Department of Industrial Chemistry, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Oye-Ekiti, NIGERIA10 Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, NIGERIA11 Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, NIGERIA12 Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos, NIGERIA13 Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, NIGERIA14 Department of Applied Chemistry, Osun State Polytechnic, Iree, Osun State, NIGERIA15 Department of Chemistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, GHANA* Corresponding Author


The search for environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional fossil fuels has been intensified by the global shift toward sustainable energy sources. With over 95% of the fuel market dominated by petroleum-based products, concerns regarding their limited biodegradability and high eco-toxicity have been escalated. In response, there is a growing demand for biobased solutions that can mitigate pollution and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, the synthesis of biodiesel from waste almond seed oil (WCO) was focused on, utilizing an innovative bifunctional catalyst derived from waste animal bones and almond shells. The efficacy of the catalyst synthesized from these unconventional materials was confirmed through rigorous characterization techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) analysis. The physicochemical properties of WCO and the resulting biodiesel were evaluated according to ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. To optimize the catalytic process, Box Behnken Design (BBD) was employed to explore the effects of key parameters: reaction temperature (40-60°C), reaction time (60-90 minutes), catalyst loading (0.5-1.5 wt%), and methanol-to-oil ratio (6:1-18:1). Remarkably, under optimal conditions, an impressive biodiesel yield of 86.2% was achieved. Specifically, the optimal parameters were a Methanol:Oil Ratio of 6.026, Catalyst Loading of 1.49917 wt%, Reaction Time of 66.8179 minutes, and Temperature of 59.9806°C. The potential of utilizing waste materials for sustainable biodiesel production is underscored by our findings. The bifunctional catalyst developed in this study represents a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional catalysts, contributing to cleaner fuel production methods.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Research Article

EUR J SUSTAIN DEV RES, Volume 8, Issue 3, 2024, Article No: em0261

Publication date: 01 Jul 2024

Online publication date: 18 Jun 2024

Article Views: 344

Article Downloads: 224

Open Access References How to cite this article