11 results found.
Trends in Sonochemical and Hydrodynamic Reactor Strategies for Catalytic Production of Biodiesel: Effects of the Influencing Process Parameters and Kinetics
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0164, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11002
ABSTRACT: Biodiesel researchers need to understand the optimal conditions involved in the production of biodiesel from readily available biological sources, as several research works have reported on biodiesel production. Therefore, this paper emphasizes specifically, the process parameters involved in biodiesel production and how they affect biodiesel yields. These parameters include, but not limited to the feedstock selection, catalyst type to use, free fatty acid, temperature, kinetics, hydrodynamics and reactor conditions. In biodiesel synthesis, a high fatty acid methyl ester yield of up to 100%w/w at 60 oC has been reported, which occurred with a methanol to oil molar ratio of 3.75, and 60 min reaction time. Homogeneous catalysts seems promising for the production of biodiesel, although they possess disposal challenges and reusability issues. In addition, carbon-based catalysts from natural sources have been used to resolve the presence of free fatty acids in biodiesel synthesis that results in the formation of soap. These carbon-derived catalysts prove their efficiency when modified with acids. The reactor suitable for biodiesel reaction, assume several configurations, like the batch, fixed bed and semi-batch configurations, with their respective reaction conditions. Furthermore, in the design of a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor operating on the rotor-stator mechanism, research has shown that the ratio of rotor to stator diameter Dr/Ds is maintained at 0.73 for efficient operation. Hence, a proper understanding of the process chemistry and techniques involved in biodiesel synthesis would ensure a high desired yield and sustainable process route.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0159, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/10875
ABSTRACT: Baobab (Adansonia digitata) is a promising bio-resource distributed across Africa. A variety of biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, bio-oil and biogas can be prepared from feedstock derived from baobab. In this vein, different parts of baobab plant, for instance oil, fruit shells, and seed cakes can be utilized for biofuel synthesis. In this study, novozyme-435 (CAL-B) was used as a biocatalyst for biodiesel production. Oil to biodiesel conversion of 91.8±2.6% was obtained within 6 h reaction time at 50 °C when the molar ratio of oil to methanol was maintained at 1: 3. Biocatalysts are non-toxic and biodegradable, therefore sustainable for the process. The results showed potential use of baobab oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production.
Chemical and Enzymatic Valorisation of Confectionery Waste into Biofuel: An Application of Circular Economy
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(1), em0146, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/9291
ABSTRACT: Waste oil was extracted from lollipop effluent stream using a mixture of organic solvents viz. n-hexane and ethyl acetate. Lollipop effluent samples found to contain ~ 10-18 wt.% oil. Subsequently, the oil was subjected to biodiesel synthesis under solvent free condition using chemical and enzymatic catalysts. Among the base catalysts used, KOH catalyzed reaction gave highest biodiesel yield (99 %) in 20 minutes. Furthermore, nine different lipases were screened as catalysts for biodiesel preparation from lollipop effluent oil. The screening experiments revealed that Novozyme-435 was best among the lipases which gave 94 % biodiesel in 18 h at 40 0C.
4-Stroke CI Engine: An Experimental Comparison of Performance Characteristics for 14% Biodiesel & Pure Diesel
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0142, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8568
ABSTRACT: Global oil reserves are facing great stress because of massive fuel consumption worldwide and the booming world population. These fossil fuels, when processed, affect the environment by releasing greenhouse gases. The outstanding usage of oil inspired many countries to develop alternative fuels. Biodiesel is the future prospect to fulfil the energy needs. It is compatible, ready to use fuel and can easily be deployed in the existing engines by combining it with conventional fuel (diesel). Biodiesel emits a lower amount of greenhouse gases. In this experiment, we first synthesized biodiesel using methanol, NaOH and vegetable oil through transestrification process. After that, we prepared a sample for 14% biodiesel which was then used to run a 4-stroke compression ignition (CI) engine that was attached to the engine testbed. After that, we re-run the same 4-stroke CI Engine with pure-diesel. From the data obtained and subsequent data-analysis, the 14% biodiesel came out to be less efficient (avg. 3% lower brake power and 8.9% lower brake thermal efficiency) and more expensive (avg. 12.8% higher fuel consumption) as compared to pure-diesel.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(3), em0119, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7804
ABSTRACT: Since almond seed oil can be used for biodiesel production, this study is aimed at investigating the effect of different blend ratios on the fuel properties of almond biodiesel. The biodiesel was characterized for the properties of flash point, cloud point, pour point, viscosity, saponification value, peroxide value, acid value, iodine value, density and specific gravity using the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometer (GCMS). When blended with petrol diesel at ratios of 20%, 30% and 50%, results showed that the properties of the biodiesel obtained at a blend of 20% had properties more similar to the ASTM standard. At that proportion of 20%, the properties of acid value, viscosity, cloud point, pour point and iodine value were found to be 0.95meq/kg, 8.80Cp, 60C, 10C and 41.62gI2/100g respectively, except the flash point which was 720C at biodiesel blend of 50%. This is because increase in blending ratios was found to result in corresponding increase of the properties.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(2), em0118, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7596
ABSTRACT: Number of experiments have been performed on various performance and emission characteristics, effect of biodiesel blends on lubricity and input and output energy distribution in diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel blends. It is also reviewed that energy audit is used in buildings, plants, process and equipments and energy audit method was developed for fishing vessels based on similar systems for land based industries. In land based businesses, industries and households, energy audits are presently used to investigate the use of energy and to identify opportunities for the efficiency improvement and effectiveness in the energy use. Energy audits have been used in various sectors, industries and utilities. This paper is a review paper of energy audit and it is found that there is a vast scope for implementation of standardized energy audit in diese engines fuelled with biodiesel blends. Its objective is to find out a standard energy audit method for diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel blends which evaluate the feasibility of biodiesel blend as fuel and also harmonise the research of biodiesel as fuel.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(1), em0105, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/6263
ABSTRACT: Production of biodiesel by transesterification method from renewable feedstock has come to stay. Biodiesel usage in internal combustion engines is gradually gaining ground due to its ability to produce less carbon (iv) oxide gas than fossil diesel during combustion. The production of less carbon (iv) oxide fumes will help to reduce environmental pollution that causes climate change. Jatropha curcas seed oil is a viable renewable feedstock for biodiesel production. Transesterification of Jatropha curcas seed oil with methanol using solid calcium oxide as catalyst was carried out. The free fatty acid of the oil used was 1.4%, while the molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature and time were 8:1, 65 °C, and 1hour respectively. The biodiesel produced was analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrophotometer and the methyl ester content was 87.25%. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced in a reaction time of about 1 hour 30 minutes are within the range of the values given by ASTM D6751 standard.
Effects of Combustion Vestibule Configuration on the Competence, Emissions and Combustion attributes of Direct Injection Diesel Prime Mover Powered with Diesel and Corn Oil Methyl Ester (CROME)
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0095, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5831
ABSTRACT: Combustion processes and emissions attributes squarely depend on combustion vestibule volume shapes relative to injector jet directions and cone angles. For injectors with more number of holes, these parameters change and may result in enhanced performance. By this we can make the gases to flow in different patterns compared to conventional engine and can anticipate higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and reduced emanations to meet stringent norms. Hence to optimize combustion chamber shapes (CCS) and vary squish, appropriate injection strategies are essential. In this occasion lab probes were conducted on a single cylinder four stroke open or induction swirl diesel engine using corn oil methyl ester (CROME) as fuel. For this variety of CCS were designed and manufactured. Injector with 6 numbers of hole and 0.2 mm orifice size was used to check its effects on the biodiesel powered engine. The suitable engine available was having Hemispherical Bowl Piston (HBP). To probe the effects of other CCS on the performance of diesel engine, Cylindrical Bowl Piston (CBP), Toroidal Bowl Piston (TBP) and Toroidal Re-entrant Bowl Piston (RBP) vestibule volume shapes were manufactured keeping ratio of compression same. For 100% replacement of diesel by biodiesel the injection pressures and injection timings tested were in the range of 210 bar to 250 bar and 19°bTDC to 27°bTDC which are based on our previous research works on other biodiesels. But the performance was maximised for 240 bar and 27°bTDC for all CCS which is reported in this paper. Engine variables such as fuel flow rate, brake power, torque, and temperature of exhaust smoke, combustion variables such as rate of heat release (HRR), peak pressure (PP), ignition delay (ID), combustion duration (CD), and exhaust emissions such as smoke opacity, HC, CO, and NOx, were measured. Results obtained with RBP shape and for CROME with 6 number of hole injector concluded in overall ameliorated competence with lesser emission levels of CO, HC and smoke, but NOx was almost same as that of diesel. Also reduced ID, CD and increased PP resulted in decreased burning time loss (BTL) increasing competence. Hence this research work shows that the CROME is also compatible and capable of replacing diesel in a diesel engine efficiently.
Effect of Injection Timing on the Utilization of B20 Blends of Dairy Scum Oil Methyl Esters (Dsome) Fulled Diesel Engine
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(2), em0082, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3971
ABSTRACT: Diesel engines are the prime movers that are highly efficient compared to their counter part of petrol engines. However, higher NOx, particulate matter CO, HC are the draw backs associated with their operation. Renewable fuels like biodiesel and their blends are suitable and substitute for different applications as they are renewable in nature and provide satisfaction for fossil fuels of diesel which are exhaustible in nature and add burden to the Indian economy. In this direction the experiments were planned on the modified diesel engines to study the effects of Dairy scum oil methyl esters B20 blend (DSOME B20). By Advancing the time of injection from 19° to 27° BTDC, keeping injection opening pressure IOP constant results are obtained and analysed. It is noticed that higher BTE, lower emissions of smoke, HC, CO emissions while NOx increased.
Common Rail Direct Injection Mode of CI Engine Operation with Different Injection Strategies - A Method to Reduce Smoke and NOx Emissions Simultaneously
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(2), 15, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/76884
ABSTRACT: Compression ignition (CI) engines are most efficient and robust prime movers used in transportation, power generation applications but suffer from the problems of higher level of exhaust smoke and NOx tailpipe emissions with increased use of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel that replaces diesel and at the same time that result in lower smoke and NOx emissions is presently needed. Therefore the main aim of this experimental study is to lower the smoke and NOx emissions and to use non edible oils that replace the diesel. For this locally available honge biodiesel (BHO) and cotton seed biodiesel (BCO) were selected as alternative fuels to power CI engine operated in common rail direct injection (CRDI) mode. In the first part, optimum fuel injection timing (IT) and injection pressure (IP) for maximum engine brake thermal efficiency (BTE) was obtained. In the second part, performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the CRDI engine was studied with two different fuel injectors having 6 and 7 holes each having 0.2 mm orifice diameter. The CRDI engine results obtained were compared with the baseline date reported. The combustion chamber (CC) used for the study was toroidal re-entrant (TRCC). The experimental tests showed that BHO and BCO fuelled CRDI engine showed overall improved performance with 7 hole injector when engine was operated at optimized fuel IT of 10° before top dead centre (bTDC) and IP of 900 bar. The smoke emission reduced by 20% to 26% and NOx reduced by 16% to 20% in diesel and biodiesel powered CRDI engine as compared to conventional CI mode besides replacing diesel by biodiesel fuel (BDF).
Different Injection Strategies to Enhance the Performance of Diesel Engine Powered with Biodiesel Fuels
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(2), 15, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201715
ABSTRACT: The compression ignition (CI) engines are most efficient and robust but they rely on depleting fossil fuel. Hence there is a speedy need to use alternative fuels that replaces diesel and at the same time engine should yield better performance. Accordingly, honge oil methyl ester (BHO) and cotton seed oil methyl ester (BCO) were selected as an alternative fuel to power CI engine in the study. In the first part, this paper aims to evaluate best fuel injection timing (IT) and injector opening pressure (IOP) for the biodiesel fuels (BDF). The combustion chamber (CC) used for the study is toriodal re-entrant (TRCC). The experimental tests showed that BHO and BCO yielded overall better performance at IT of 19° before top dead centre (bTDC) and IOP of 240 bar. In the second part, the effect of number of holes on the performance of BDF powered CI engine was studied keeping optimized IT and IOP. The six-hole injector with 0.2 mm injector orifice diameter yielded better performance compared to other injectors of different holes and size tested.