EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH
Research Article

The Impact of Processing Procedures on the Proximate and Phytochemical Composition of Unripe Musa Paradisiaca (Plantain)

European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(3), em0188, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12038
Full Text (PDF)

ABSTRACT

The study assessed the impacts of processing methods (sun drying and oven drying) on the proximate and phytochemical composition of unripe Musa paradisiaca (plantain) flour. Proximate and phytochemical analyses of the samples were performed using the standard methods. The unripe plantain flours were dried using sun drying and oven drying process and compared against fresh plantain for their nutritional and antinutritional content. The proximate content (%) of the unripe Musa paradisiaca include crude protein (3.58±0.43), carbohydrate (68.74±1.10), crude fat (2.02±0.19), and moisture content (9.06±1.88) after oven drying while crude protein (3.24±0.09), carbohydrate (64.84±1.24), crude fat (1.29±0.26), and moisture (15.86±1.61) were obtained after sun drying of unripe Musa paradisiaca. The phytochemical analysis (%) showed that the unripe Musa paradisiaca samples contain alkaloid (0.30±0.10), flavonoid (0.40±0.06), saponins (0.36±0.10), and tannin (0.30±0.10) for oven dried whereas some amount of alkaloid (1.18±0.20), flavonoid (0.79±0.16), saponins (1.59±0.23), and tannin (1.70±0.26) were observed for sun dried feedstock. The analysis of the nutritional composition implies that drying style has the potential to lower the moisture levels of plantain flour (p<0.005), whereas oven dried had the least moisture levels compared to sun dried and freshly prepared samples (59.74±1.88). The crude protein and phytochemical contents of the processed samples also reduced significantly, while carbohydrate, ash and crude fiber contents increased significantly (p<0.005) in relation to freshly prepared (27.84±1.27; 1.87±0.42; 1.62±0.51). The drying procedure of the unripe Musa paradisiaca produced flour with comparable nutritional contents, as oven dried gave least moisture content which is indicative of high potential to prevent spoilage and microbial development thereby increasing and prolonging the lifespan to usability.

KEYWORDS

Musa paradisiaca sun drying oven drying phytochemicals proximate analysis

CITATION (APA)

Okechukwu, V. U., Amaefule, A. I., Omokpariola, D. O., Umeh, T. C., Oze, N. R., & Omokpariola, P. L. (2022). The Impact of Processing Procedures on the Proximate and Phytochemical Composition of Unripe Musa Paradisiaca (Plantain). European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 6(3), em0188. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12038
Harvard
Okechukwu, V. U., Amaefule, A. I., Omokpariola, D. O., Umeh, T. C., Oze, N. R., and Omokpariola, P. L. (2022). The Impact of Processing Procedures on the Proximate and Phytochemical Composition of Unripe Musa Paradisiaca (Plantain). European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 6(3), em0188. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12038
Vancouver
Okechukwu VU, Amaefule AI, Omokpariola DO, Umeh TC, Oze NR, Omokpariola PL. The Impact of Processing Procedures on the Proximate and Phytochemical Composition of Unripe Musa Paradisiaca (Plantain). EUR J SUSTAIN DEV RES. 2022;6(3):em0188. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12038
AMA
Okechukwu VU, Amaefule AI, Omokpariola DO, Umeh TC, Oze NR, Omokpariola PL. The Impact of Processing Procedures on the Proximate and Phytochemical Composition of Unripe Musa Paradisiaca (Plantain). EUR J SUSTAIN DEV RES. 2022;6(3), em0188. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12038
Chicago
Okechukwu, Victor U., Anthony I. Amaefule, Daniel O. Omokpariola, Theresa C. Umeh, Nwannneamaka R. Oze, and Patrick L. Omokpariola. "The Impact of Processing Procedures on the Proximate and Phytochemical Composition of Unripe Musa Paradisiaca (Plantain)". European Journal of Sustainable Development Research 2022 6 no. 3 (2022): em0188. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12038
MLA
Okechukwu, Victor U. et al. "The Impact of Processing Procedures on the Proximate and Phytochemical Composition of Unripe Musa Paradisiaca (Plantain)". European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, vol. 6, no. 3, 2022, em0188. https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12038

REFERENCES

  1. Adepoju, O. T., Sunday, B. E. and Folarami, O. A. (2012). Nutrient composition and contributions of plantain, (Musa paradisiaca) products to dietary diversity of Nigerian consumers. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(71), 13601-13605. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.3046
  2. Agoyero, B. O., Akpiroroh, O. O., Osaweren, O. R. and Owabor, C. N. (2011). The effect of various drying methods on the nutritional composition of Musa paradisiacal dioscorea rotundata and colocasia esculenta. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, 6, 458-464. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajb.2011.458.464
  3. AOAC. (2016). Official methods of analysis, 21st edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
  4. AOAC. 2010. Officials methods of analysis, 17th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
  5. Baiyeri, K. P., Aba, S. C., Otitoju, G. T. and Mbah, O. B. (2011). The effects of ripening and cooking method on mineral and proximate composition of plantain (Musa sp. AAB cv. “agbagba”) fruit pulp. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(36), 6979-6984.
  6. Borges, C. V., Maraschin, M., Coelho, D. S., Leonel, M., Gomez, H. A. G., Belin, M. A. F., Diamante, M. S., Amorim, E. P., Gianeti, T., Castro, G. R. and Lima, G. P. P. (2020). Nutritional value and antioxidant compounds during the ripening and after domestic cooking of bananas and plantains. Food Research International, 132, 109061. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109061
  7. Borges, C. V., Minatel, I. O., Amorim, E. P., Belin, M. A. F., Gomez, H. A. G., Correa, C. R. and Lima, G. P. P. (2019). Ripening and cooking processes influence the carotenoid content in bananas and plantains (Musa spp.). Food Research International, 124, 129-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.08.022
  8. Eleazu, C. O., Okafor, P. N., Amajor, J., Awa, E., Ikpeama, A. I. and Eleazu, K. C. (2011). Chemical composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and inhibitory action of unripe plantain (M. paradisiacae) flour. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(74), 16948-16952. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB10.1180
  9. Fadimu, G. J., Sanni, L. O., Adebowale, A. R., Kareem, S., Sobukola, O. P., Kajihausa, O., Saghir, A., Siwoku, B., Akinsanya, A. and Adenekan, M. K. (2018). Effect of drying methods on the chemical composition, colour, functional and pasting properties of plantain (Musa parasidiaca) flour. Croatian Journal of Food Technology, Biotechnology and Nutrition, 13(1-2), 38-43 https://doi.org/10.31895/hcptbn.13.1-2.2
  10. Habou, D., Asere, A. A. and Alhassan, A. M. (2003). Comparative study of the drying rate of tomatoes and pepper using forced and natural convection solar dryer. Nigerian Journal of Renewable Energy, 14, 36-40.
  11. Ibukun, O. E., Kade, I. J., Oguntoyinbo, T. A., Ogunmoyole, T. and Johnson, O. D. (2012). Effect of ripening on the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant properties of plantain (Musa paradisiaca). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6(37), 5077-5085. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR12.209
  12. Lamptey, R., Velayoudom, F.-L., Kake, A., Uloko, A. E., Rhedoor, A. J., Kibirige, D., Mbaye, N. M. N., Sobgnwi, E. and Kalra, S. (2019). Plantains: Gluco-friendly usage. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 69(10), 1565-1567.
  13. Mepba, H. D., Eboh, L. and Nwaojigwa, S. U. (2007). Chemical composition, functional and baking properties of wheat-plantain composite flours. African Journal of Food, Agricalture, Nutrition and Development, 7(1), 1-22.
  14. Mukhtar, F. B. (2009). Effect of storage temperature on post harvest deterioration of banana and plantain (Musa sp.). International Journal of Scientific Research in Physics and Applied Sciences, 3, 28-38.
  15. Okareh, O. T., Adeolu, A. T. and Adepoju, O. T. (2015). Proximate and mineral composition of plantain (Musa paradisiaca) wastes flour; a potential nutrients source in the formulation of animal feeds. African Journal of Food Science and Technology, 6(2), 53-57. https://doi.org/10.14303/ajfst.2015.015
  16. Okechukwu, V. C., Eze, S. C., Omokpariola, D. O. and Okereke, J. C. (2021). Evaluation of phytochemical constituents of methanol extract of moringa oleifera lam. whole leaf by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. World News of Natural Sciences, 37, 18-30.
  17. Oko, A. A., Famurewa, A. C. and Nwaza, J. O. (2015). Proximate composition, mineral elements and starch characteristics: Study of eight (8) unripe plantain cultivars in Nigeria. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 6(3), 285-294. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJAST/2015/14096
  18. Olorode, O. O and Ewuoso, L. M. (2017). Effect of different sun drying surfaces on the ffunctional properties and microbial loads of unripe plantain flours. Frontiers in Environmental Microbiology, 3(3), 50-55. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.fem.20170303.12
  19. Omokpariola, D. O., Okechukwu, V. C. and Omokpariola, P. L. (2021a). Effects of processing on the nutritive properties of afzelia africana. Advanced Journal of Chemistry-Section B: Natural Products and Medical Chemistry, 3(2), 188-198. https://doi.org/10.22034/ajcb.2021.269520.1076
  20. Omokpariola, D. O., Precious-Egere, S. C., Omokpariola, P. L. and Okechukwu, V. U. (2021b). Phytochemical and anti-microbial analysis of metabolites in seeds of moringa oleifera grown in Nigeria. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, 4(3), 268-277. http://doi.org/10.22034/pcbr.2021.269528.1173
  21. Orole, R. T., Orole, O. O., Aisoni, J. E., Isyaku, J. and Mohammed, Y. S. (2020). Comparative study of the physicochemical properties of male and female flutted pumpkin (telfairia occidentalis). The Journal of Medical Research, 6(2), 55-61. https://doi.org/10.31254/jmr.2020.6207
  22. Price, K. R., Johnson, I. T. and Fenwic, C. R. (1987). The chemical and biological significance of saponins in food and feeding stuff. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 26(1), 27-135. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398709527461
  23. Robbins, R. J. (2003). Phenolic acids in foods. An overview of analytical methodology. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 2886-2887. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf026182t
  24. Sadasivam, S. and Manickam, A. (1992). Biochemical methods for agricultural sciences. India: Wiley Eastern Ltd..
  25. Savage, G. P., Dutta, P. C. and Rodriguez-Estrada, M. T. (2002). Cholesterol oxides: Their occurrence and methods to prevent their generation in foods. Asian Practical Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 11, 72-78. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-6047.2002.00270.x
  26. Trease, E. and Evans, W. C. (1996). Phytochemical of plants. In Pharmacognosy (pp. 213-233). Oxford, UK: Alden Press.
  27. Udo, I. I., Etokakpan, O. U., Ukwo, S. P. and Ukpong, E. O. (2021). Evaluation of the proximate compositions, dietary fibre and resistant starch contents of selected varieties of banana and plantain. Journal of Advances in Food Science & Technology, 8(1), 1-9.
  28. Wiriya, P., Paiboon, T. and Somchart, S. (2009). Effect of drying air temperature and chemical pretreatments on quality of dried chilli. International Food Research Journal, 16, 4-7.
  29. Yarkwan, B. and Uvir, R. H. (2015). Effects of drying methods on the nutritional composition of unripe plantain flour. Food Science and Quality Management, 41, 5-10.

LICENSE

Creative Commons License
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.