European Journal of Sustainable Development Research

USAID: Investing in Primary Education for the Sustainable Development of Pakistan
Sajida Zia 1 * , Sobia Siddique 1, Saddam Hussain 1, Tehzeeb Bano 1, Mehak Shahzad 1
More Detail
1 National University of Sciences and Technology, NUST, Islamabad, PAKISTAN
* Corresponding Author
Research Article

European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021 - Volume 5 Issue 4, Article No: em0169

Published Online: 31 Aug 2021

Views: 338 | Downloads: 326

How to cite this article
APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Zia et al., 2021)
Reference: Zia, S., Siddique, S., Hussain, S., Bano, T., & Shahzad, M. (2021). USAID: Investing in Primary Education for the Sustainable Development of Pakistan. European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 5(4), em0169.
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Zia S, Siddique S, Hussain S, Bano T, Shahzad M. USAID: Investing in Primary Education for the Sustainable Development of Pakistan. EUR J SUSTAIN DEV RES. 2021;5(4):em0169.
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Zia S, Siddique S, Hussain S, Bano T, Shahzad M. USAID: Investing in Primary Education for the Sustainable Development of Pakistan. EUR J SUSTAIN DEV RES. 2021;5(4), em0169.
In-text citation: (Zia et al., 2021)
Reference: Zia, Sajida, Sobia Siddique, Saddam Hussain, Tehzeeb Bano, and Mehak Shahzad. "USAID: Investing in Primary Education for the Sustainable Development of Pakistan". European Journal of Sustainable Development Research 2021 5 no. 4 (2021): em0169.
In-text citation: (Zia et al., 2021)
Reference: Zia, S., Siddique, S., Hussain, S., Bano, T., and Shahzad, M. (2021). USAID: Investing in Primary Education for the Sustainable Development of Pakistan. European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 5(4), em0169.
In-text citation: (Zia et al., 2021)
Reference: Zia, Sajida et al. "USAID: Investing in Primary Education for the Sustainable Development of Pakistan". European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, vol. 5, no. 4, 2021, em0169.
Human and educational development is a prerequisite for the socio-economic development of a country. Pakistan is struggling hard to enhance quality and access of primary education to children of all the regions. USAID’s partnership with local organizations and government has made gigantic efforts to raise level of equitable access to education particularly in less developed regions of the country through engagement in certain bilateral operations by providing assistance. Pakistan has multiple constraints in its educational sector; low budget, weak governance, corruption and insecurity. Since, it cannot overcome these obstacles without foreign assistance. This paper highlights the role and interventions of USAID in Pakistan for the improvement of primary education through secondary research methodology. Findings of the results shows that USAID has played a positive role in promoting the primary educational sector through improved curriculum, schools construction, teachers training and reduction in community specific barriers. Thus, it is concluded that USAID through its initiatives has driven towards fulfilling the gap in an efficient manner.
  • Ahmad, I., Rauf, M., Rashid, A., ur Rehman, S. and Salam, M. (2013). Analysis of the problems of primary education system in Pakistan: Critical review of literature. Academic Research International, 4(2), 324.
  • Alam, G. M. (2009). The role of science and technology education at network age population for sustainable development of Bangladesh through human resource advancement. Scientific Research and Essays, 4(11), 1260-1270.
  • Alderman, H. and Chishti, S. (1991). Simultaneous determination of household and market-oriented activities of women in rural Pakistan. Research in Population Economics, 7, 245-265.
  • Alesina, A. and Dollar, D. (2000). Who gives foreign aid to whom and why?. Journal of Economic Growth, 5(1), 33-63.
  • Aly, J. H. (2007). Education in Pakistan: A white paper (revised). Documentation to Debate and Finalize the National Education Policy. Islamabad: Government of Pakistan, National Education Policy Review Team.
  • Annual Status of Education Report: ASER Pakistan 2015 National (Urban). Available at:
  • Anzar, U., Harpring, S., Cohen, J. and Leu, E. (2004). Retrospective Pilot Study of USAID-Funded Education Projects in Malawi. Online Submission.
  • Ashraf, D. and Farah, I. (2007). Education and women’s empowerment: Re-examining the relationship. Education, gender and empowerment: Perspectives from South Asia, 15.
  • Aslam, M. (2009). The relative effectiveness of government and private schools in Pakistan: are girls worse off?. Education Economics, 17(3), 329-354.
  • Awan, A. G. and Zia, A. (2015). Comparative Analysis of Public and Private Educational Institutions: A case study of District Vehari-Pakistan. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(16), 122-130.
  • Ayaz, A. and Saleem, S. (2010). Neonatal mortality and prevalence of practices for newborn care in a squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One, 5(11), e13783.
  • Bano, M. (2006). Self-interest, rationality and cooperative behaviour: Aid and problems of cooperation within voluntary groups in Pakistan (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oxford).
  • Bano, M. (2008). Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) as ‘anchor’of educational reforms: lessons from Pakistan. Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2009.
  • Benoliel, S., O’Gara, C. and Miske, S. J. (1997). Focus on Girls: USAID Programs and Policies in Education. Center for Information and Evaluation, USAID. Washington, DC.
  • Birchler, K. and Michaelowa, K. (2016). Making aid work for education in developing countries: An analysis of aid effectiveness for primary education coverage and quality. International Journal of Educational Development, 48, 37-52.
  • Birdsall, N., Levine, R. and Ibrahim, A. (2005). Towards universal primary education: investments, incentives, and institutions. European Journal of Education, 40(3), 337-349.
  • Brautigam, D. A. and Knack, S. (2004). Foreign aid, institutions, and governance in sub-Saharan Africa. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 52(2), 255-285.
  • Bray, M. (2003). Community initiatives in education: Goals, dimensions and linkages with governments. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 33(1), 31-45.
  • Buchert, L. (1995). The concept of Education for All: what has happened after Jomtien?. International Review of Education / Internationale Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft / Revue Internationale de l’Education, 41(6), 537-549.
  • Burian, S. J., Ward, M., Banuri, T., Chaudhry, M. A., et al. (2017). Higher education capacity building in water resources engineering and management to support achieving the sustainable development goal for water in Pakistan. American Society for Engineering Education.
  • Bushra, Z. and Amjad, A. (2017). Women, children, and terrorism: social, economic and political costs (empirical investigation from Pakistan 2002–2015). Rom J Econ, 44, 107-120.
  • Butz, D. (2015). Education for development in northern Pakistan. Opportunities and constraints for rural households.
  • Chabbott, C. (2003). Constructing education for development: International organizations and education for all. Psychology Press.
  • Change, G. A. C. O. G. (2013). World in transition 4: Fighting poverty through environmental policy. Routledge.
  • Chapman, D. W. and Quijada, J. J. (2009). An analysis of USAID assistance to basic education in the developing world, 1990–2005. International Journal of Educational Development, 29(3), 268-280.
  • Cheema, A. R. (2017). Education: What’s holding back rural Pakistan from achieving education for all? Dawn, Sunday Magazine. Available at: (Accessed: 11 July 2020).
  • Curtis, L. A. (2007). US aid to Pakistan: Countering extremism through education reform. Washington DC: Heritage Foundation.
  • Davies, L. (2008). Education against extremism. Stoke on Trent, UK: Trentham Books.
  • Devarajan, S. and Swaroop, V. (1999). The implications of foreign aid fungibility for development assistance. The World Bank: Structure and Policies, 196-209.
  • Dobers, P. and Halme, M. (2009). Corporate social responsibility and developing countries. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 16(5), 237-249.
  • Dreher, A., Gaston, N. and Martens, P. (2008). Measuring globalisation. Gauging its Consequences. New York: Springer.
  • Dreher, A., Nunnenkamp, P. and Thiele, R. (2008). Does aid for education educate children? Evidence from panel data. The World Bank Economic Review, 22(2), 291-314.
  • Edwards Jr, D. B. (2013). International processes of education policy formation: An analytic framework and the case of Plan 2021 in El Salvador. Comparative Education Review, 57(1), 22-53.
  • Edwards Jr, D. B., Libreros, J. A. V. and Martin, P. (2015). The geometry of policy implementation: Lessons from the political economy of three education reforms in El Salvador during 1990–2005. International Journal of Educational Development, 44, 28-41.
  • Ekaju, J. (2011). An investigation into the relationship between the 1997 Universal Primary Education (UPE) policy and regional poverty and educational inequalities in Uganda (1997-2007) (Doctoral dissertation, University of Glasgow).
  • Enders, J. (2004). Higher education, internationalisation, and the nation-state: Recent developments and challenges to governance theory. Higher education, 47(3), 361-382.
  • Farah, I. and Rizvi, S. (2007). Public–private partnerships: Implications for primary schooling in Pakistan. Social Policy & Administration, 41(4), 339-354.
  • Farooq, M., Hedieh, M. and Waleed, Z. (2009). Developing FATA, A white paper for USAID. A white paper prepared for United States Agency for International Development.
  • Finkel, S. E. and Ernst, H. R. (2005). Civic education in post‐apartheid South Africa: Alternative paths to the development of political knowledge and democratic values. Political Psychology, 26(3), 333-364.
  • Ginsburg, M., Klauss, R., Nankhuni, F., Nyirongo, L., Omowoyela, J. S., Richardson, E., ... & Willimann, C. (2014). Engaging community members in enhancing educational quality: Studies of the implementation of the Primary School Improvement Programme in Malawi. Southern African Review of Education with Education with Production, 20(1), 30-57.
  • Government of Balochistan Education Department. (1997). Balochistan Education Management Information System (BEMIS) Data.
  • Grantham-McGregor, S., Cheung, Y. B., Cueto, S., Glewwe, P., Richter, L., Strupp, B. and International Child Development Steering Group. (2007). Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. The Lancet, 369(9555), 60-70.
  • Gylfason, T. (2001). Natural resources, education, and economic development. European Economic Review, 45(4-6), 847-859.
  • Harvey, L. (2000). New realities: The relationship between higher education and employment. Tertiary Education & Management, 6(1), 3-17.
  • Hewson, M., Sinclair, T. J. and Sinclair, T. (Eds.). (1999). Approaches to global governance theory. Suny Press.
  • Hill, M. A. and King, E. (1995). Women’s education and economic well-being. Feminist Economics, 1(2), 21-46.
  • Hsieh, H. F. and Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative health research, 15(9), 1277-1288.
  • Hunzai, Z. N. (2007). Early years education in Pakistan: trends, issues and strategies. International Journal of Early Years Education, 15(3), 297-309.
  • Hussain, R. and Ali, S. (2010). Improving public school teachers in Pakistan: Challenges and opportunities. Improving Schools, 13(1), 70-80.
  • Inayat, M. (2012). Towards universal primary education: a case study of US development assistance to education reform in Pakistan (Master’s thesis, Universitetet i Tromsø).
  • Kadzamira, E. and Rose, P. (2003). Can free primary education meet the needs of the poor?: evidence from Malawi. International Journal of Educational Development, 23(5), 501-516.
  • Kazmi, S. W. and Quran, H. (2005). Role of education in globalization: A case for Pakistan. SAARC Journal of Human Resource Development, 1(1), 90-107.
  • Kerwin, D. (2016). How robust refugee protection policies can strengthen human and national security. Journal on Migration and Human Security, 4(3), 83-140.
  • Khan, M. A., Kanwal, N. and Wang, L. (2018). Violent attacks on education in the tribal areas of Pakistan and the role of NGOs in providing educational services. Conflict, Security & Development, 18(2), 113-136.
  • King, E. M. and Hill, M. A. (1993). Women’s education in developing countries: Barriers, benefits, and policies. The World Bank.
  • Kleemeier, E. (2000). The impact of participation on sustainability: an analysis of the Malawi rural piped scheme program. World Development, 28(5), 929-944.
  • Kumi, E., Ibrahim, M. and Yeboah, T. (2017). Aid volatility and structural economic transformation in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Leithwood, K. and Mascall, B. (2009). Distributing leadership to make schools smarter: Taking the ego out of the system (pp. 241-270). Routledge.
  • Lum, T. and Margesson, R. (2014). Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda): US and international response to Philippines disaster. Current Politics and Economics of South, Southeastern, and Central Asia, 23(2), 209.
  • Malik, R. (2007). Aid effectiveness and the role of donor intervention in the education sector in Pakistan-a review of issues and literature.
  • Malik, R. and Naveed, A. (2012). Financing education in Pakistan: The impact of public expenditure and aid on educational outcomes. Research Consortium on Educational Outcomes and Poverty (RECOUP).
  • Mamoon, D. (2018). Progressing Pakistan should ensure quality education for all. Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 5(1), 9-14.
  • Manion, C. and Menashy, F. (2013). The prospects and challenges of reforming the World Bank’s approach to gender and education: Exploring the value of the capability policy model in The Gambia. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, 14(2), 214-240.
  • Memon, G. R. (2007). Education in Pakistan: The key issues, problems and the new challenges. Journal of Management and Social Sciences, 3(1), 47-55.
  • Miller-Grandvaux, Y. and Yoder, K. (2002). A literature review of community schools in Africa.
  • Mirahmadi, H., Ziad, W., Farooq, M. and Lamb, R. (2016). Empowering Pakistan’s civil society to counter violent extremism. Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, 8(1), 188.
  • Moreland, S. and Talbird, S. (2006). Achieving the millennium development goals: The contribution of fulfilling the unmet need for family planning.
  • Morse, J. M. (2003). Principles of mixed methods and multimethod research design. Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research, 1, 189-208.
  • Mundy, K. (2008). From NGOs to CSOs: Social Citizenship, Civil Society and “Education for All”--An Agenda for Further Research. Current Issues in Comparative Education, 10, 32-40.
  • Naviwala, N. (2010). Harnessing local capacity: US assistance and NGOs in Pakistan. John F. Kennedy School of Government.
  • Naviwala, N. (2016). Pakistan’s education crisis: The real story. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
  • Nishimura, M., Yamano, T. and Sasaoka, Y. (2008). Impacts of the universal primary education policy on educational attainment and private costs in rural Uganda. International Journal of Educational Development, 28(2), 161-175.
  • Novelli, M. and Cardozo, M. T. L. (2008). Conflict, education and the global south: New critical directions. International Journal of Educational Development, 28(4), 473-488.
  • Oduro, G., Dachi, H., Fertig, M. and Rarieya, J. (2007). Research project–leadership and management of change for quality improvement.
  • Owusu, M. B. (2018). Aid for basic education development in Ghana–the recipients’ experience (Doctoral dissertation, University of Glasgow).
  • Ozgercin, K. V. and Weiss, T. G. (2009). The evolution of global governance: theory and practice. International Relations: Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems, 137-155.
  • Padgett, D. K. (2016). Qualitative methods in social work research (Vol. 36). Sage publications.
  • Parker, F. (2000). UNESCO’s aid to teacher education in Africa. Peabody Journal of Education, 48(2), 167-171.
  • Pilgrim, N., Mathur, S., Gottert, A., Rutenberg, N. and Pulerwitz, J. (2016). Building evidence to guide PrEP introduction for adolescent girls and young women.
  • Rahman, T. (2010). National Institute of Pakistan Studies October 2010.
  • Rajkumar, A. S. and Swaroop, V. (2008). Public spending and outcomes: Does governance matter?. Journal of Development Economics, 86(1), 96-111.
  • Rashid, A. (2000). Engaging with Basic Education in Pakistan. SAHE Education Watch Report. Lahore: SAHE.
  • Rehman Cheema, A. and Ali, S. (2017). Beyond Tayyaba: tackling rural poverty to reduce child labour. South Asia@ LSE.
  • Robert, K. W., Parris, T. M. and Leiserowitz, A. A. (2005). What is sustainable development? Goals, indicators, values, and practice. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 47(3), 8-21.
  • Ruggie, J. G. (2014). Global governance and “new governance theory”: Lessons from business and human rights. Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, 20(1), 5-17.
  • Sajid, I. (2012). Over 3,000 schools destroyed in militancy, disasters: Official. The Express Tribune, June 15. Available at: (Accessed: 11 July 2020).
  • Schiefelbein, E. and Simmons, J. (2005). Determinants of school achievement: a review of the research for developing countries. Manuscript reports/IDRC; 9.
  • Scholte, J. A. (2002). Civil society and democracy in global governance. Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, 8(3), 281-304.
  • Shah, G. H., Bari, F. and Ejaz, N. (2005). The role of NGOs in basic and primary education in Pakistan: NGO pulse report. Lahore University of Management Sciences.
  • Shah, G. H., Bari, F. and Ejaz, N. (2005). The role of NGOs in basic and primary education in Pakistan: NGO pulse report. Lahore University of Management Sciences.
  • Shah, N. M., Ahmad, N. and Sathar, Z. A. (1986). Changes in Female Roles in Pakistan: Are the Volume and Pace Adequate? [with Comments]. The Pakistan Development Review, 25(3), 339-369.
  • Stewart, D. W. and Kamins, M. A. (1993). Secondary research: Information sources and methods (Vol. 4). Sage.
  • Teegen, H., Doh, J. P. and Vachani, S. (2004). The importance of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in global governance and value creation: An international business research agenda. Journal of international business studies, 35(6), 463-483.
  • Unterhalter, E. (2017). A review of public private partnerships around girls’ education in developing countries: Flicking gender equality on and off. Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy, 33(2), 181-199.
  • Vare, P. and Scott, W. (2007). Learning for a change: Exploring the relationship between education and sustainable development. Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 1(2), 191-198.
  • Verger, A. (2012). Framing and selling global education policy: the promotion of public–private partnerships for education in low-income contexts. Journal of Education Policy, 27(1), 109-130.
  • Watson, C., Lone, T., Qazi, U., Smith, G. and Rashid, F. (2016). Shock-responsive social protection systems research.
  • Welch, A. R. and Zhen, Z. (2008). Higher education and global talent flows: Brain drain, overseas Chinese intellectuals, and diasporic knowledge networks. Higher Education Policy, 21(4), 519-537.
  • Zaidi, S. A. (2011). Who benefits from US aid to Pakistan?. Economic and Political Weekly, 103-109.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.