Volume 5, Issue 4, 2021

Research Article
USAID: Investing in Primary Education for the Sustainable Development of Pakistan
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(4), em0169,
ABSTRACT: Human and educational development is a prerequisite for the socio-economic development of a country. Pakistan is struggling hard to enhance quality and access of primary education to children of all the regions. USAID’s partnership with local organizations and government has made gigantic efforts to raise level of equitable access to education particularly in less developed regions of the country through engagement in certain bilateral operations by providing assistance. Pakistan has multiple constraints in its educational sector; low budget, weak governance, corruption and insecurity. Since, it cannot overcome these obstacles without foreign assistance. This paper highlights the role and interventions of USAID in Pakistan for the improvement of primary education through secondary research methodology. Findings of the results shows that USAID has played a positive role in promoting the primary educational sector through improved curriculum, schools construction, teachers training and reduction in community specific barriers. Thus, it is concluded that USAID through its initiatives has driven towards fulfilling the gap in an efficient manner.
Review Article
Influence of Ventilation in Healthcare Facilities Prevention of Infection COVID-19: Systematic Review Study
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(4), em0170,
ABSTRACT: Currently, (2019-2020) COVID-19 global pandemic is caused by a member of the Coronaviridae group. Some human viruses are spread from human to human by way of droplets or aerosols, but fewer viruses are persistently airborne in transmission, and the healthcare-associated epidemic of airborne viral infection are restricted to very few surrogates. In addition, it is one of the most efficient tools (i.e., the second one) for preventing inside air pollution through ventilation. To our aim was to perform a rapid literature review to answer the following question: does ventilation in healthcare facilities prevention of infection COVID-19?
This study is a systematic review by searching among published articles in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, PubMed Central (PMC), Google Scholar databases as well as medRxiv by using the following keywords: ‘COVID-19’, ‘healthcare settings’, ‘prevention’, ‘ventilation’, ‘Hospital, ‘Infection’, and ‘Air changes per hour.
After investigating the information and quality of articles, 52 articles were included in this study. The literature denotes that temperature, relative humidity, and ventilation and air conditioning systems have beneficial effects to prevent COVID-19 infection.
The results of this study demonstrated that many parameters basic strategy of control COVID-19 include: hand hygiene, social distancing, screening and case finding, isolation and separating, decontamination and disinfection, and effective ventilation. Thus, based on recommendations of CDC, WHO, and other studies effective ventilation is the most important transmission of respiratory disease control strategy, specially COVID-19.
Research Article
Determination of Logistic Model Parameters From AM2 Model for Methane Production for Batch Bioreactors
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(4), em0171,
ABSTRACT: Modeling the estimation of cumulated methane production generated from batch anaerobic bioreactors is of paramount importance. In this context, there are two main modeling approaches. The first approach is based on developing mathematical expressions representing the processes involved in the bioreactors. The AM1 model is known as the most complete one. However, it is a complicated model as it requires about 80 parameters to be tuned. A model named AM2 which is a simplified version of AM1 has also been developed. It is based on only two microbial growth processes and requires only 13 parameters. Nevertheless, both AM1 and AM2 models do not provide explicit mathematical expressions that enable to estimate the temporal evolution of methane production with respect to the parameters involved in the considered models. These models are much more useful for simulations and graphical visualizations of the dynamical behavior of the state variables including methane production. On the other hand, the second approach suggests semi-empirical or data-driven models which are based on simple explicit mathematical expressions that provide an estimate of the cumulated methane production (Logistic model, Gompertz model, etc.). But, this type of models require the identification of few parameters which are extracted from experimental data. Usually, they are simplistic and use only one growth process and thus cannot exhibit the influence of the many parameters involved in such complex dynamic biotechnological systems.
In this paper, to overcome the complexity of the first type of models and to avoid the dependency on experimental data in the second type; an explicit analytical mathematical expression is proposed for estimating the cumulated methane production for batch anaerobic bioreactors. This analytical expression is derived via the adoption of some appropriate approximations performed on the set of differential equations characterizing the AM2 model. Therefore, the proposed analytical expression can be considered as an approximation of the AM2 model itself and this is the first contribution of this paper. Graphical profiles of the cumulated methane production are presented showing that of the proposed logistic expression and that of the AM2 model considered as a reference. To the best of the author’s knowledge, no such approach and result have been encountered in the literature.
On the other hand, this expression resembles formally to the semi-empiric logistic model. However, the equivalent parameters of the proposed expression as self-defined by the parameters of the AM2 model and do not require experimental data to be identified as it is for the semi-empiric logistic model. Moreover, by comparing the proposed logistic model to the semi-empiric logistic model, an identification of the parameters of the semi-empiric model is linked to the parameters of the AM2 model, providing more insight into the methane production. This can be considered as a second contribution of this paper.
Research Article
Estimating the Regional Development in Gems Mining Areas in Brazil
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(4), em0172,
ABSTRACT: The activity of extracting gems can be improved if public policies are adopted to expand the production chain in Brazil. In theory, the mining activity could be enhanced by increasing the financial collection of the taxes through mineral extraction aligned with the characteristics of the local economy. The present study uses a decision tree model for classifying the regional development of Brazilian states with gemstone mining activities, based on the regional data on financial compensation for mineral extraction (CFEM), gross domestic product (GDP), Human development index (HDI), environmental impact, and geo-tourism applying decision tree models. CFEM, HDP, HDI, and geo-tourism were continuous variables, and the environmental impact was discretized as ‘low,’ ‘medium,’ and ‘high.’ The results indicate that regional development is not only directly related to revenue from the financial compensation for mineral extraction. The GDP and environmental impact also influence regional development. The variables geo-tourism and HDI did not appear to exert influence on regional development. We infer that the increase in taxes would not directly benefit the local government or community from the results. Further initiatives and appropriate public policies would be necessary for planning the adequate distribution of the received resources from gem mining to improve regional growth and development.