Keyword: Shell

4 results found.

Research Article
Performance and Emission Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine Running on a Blend of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and Biodiesel Produced from Orange Peel
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(4), em0197,
ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the performance and emission characteristics of an orange peel biodiesel blended with cashew nut shell liquid. It investigates the efficacy of cashew nut shell liquid in reducing nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions resulting from the combustion of the biodiesel, while optimizing its performance.
The biodiesel was prepared via transesterification. It was obtained by reacting orange peel oil produced through Soxhlet extraction with methanol in the presence of NaOH. The biodiesel was blended with cashew nut shell liquid in the ratio 70%:30% (B70).
Experimental results demonstrate that blending cashew nut shell liquid with orange peel biodiesel causes a slight decrease in NOX emission. B70 generates 150 ppm of NOX, while B100 and diesel produce 159 ppm and 193 ppm, respectively. The hydrocarbon emission of B70 was 8% lower than that of B100 and 22.3% lower than that of diesel. As regards CO and CO2 emission, B70 performs better than B100 and diesel. The performance parameters were computed at brake powers of 2.5 kW, 5.0 kW, 7.5 kW, and 10 kW. In comparison to diesel and B100, B70 has higher brake thermal efficiency at all loads. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of B70 is higher than that of diesel, but less than that of B100 at 2.5 kW and 5.0 kW. At 7.5 kW and 10 kW, the BSFC of B70 is higher than that of B100 and diesel. Conclusively, B70 gives optimal performance and less emission. Hence, cashew nut shell liquid is a good additive.
Research Article
Sequestration of Heavy Metals From Coal Wash Water Using Biochar From Pyrolysis of Morula Shells
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(1), em0173,
ABSTRACT: Biomass is a source of low-cost adsorbents used in the removal of contaminants. In this study, shells from an indigenous tree in Southern Africa called Morula were pyrolyzed to produce biochar that was used to sequester heavy metals from coal wash water. The produced biochar was activated using hydrochloric acid (HCl) and parameters such as the cation exchange capacity (CEC), point of zero charge (pHzc), elemental composition, mineral composition, proximate analysis and surface functional groups were determined. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out at 150 rpm for 60 min and 25 ºC at different metal ion concentrations and adsorbent dosages. The metal ions of interest were Zn, Ni and Fe and it was found that Fe recorded higher removals for both raw and activated biochar. Generally higher removals were noticed for both raw and activated at lower dosages (0.2 – 1.0 g/100 mL) and lower metal ion concentration (between 40 and 60 ppm) while lower removals were found at higher dosages (1 – 5 g/100 mL) and higher metal ion concentrations (between 400 – 600 ppm).
Research Article
Performance Study of an Advanced Micro-gasifier Stove with Coconut Shell
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0101,
ABSTRACT: In this paper, an attempt has been made to study ACS IES-15 micro-gasifier stove tested with Coconut shell. The testing procedure followed to evaluate the performance of the stove is as per the standard protocol WBT 4.2.3, and the results are analysed in terms of thermal efficiency, firepower, specific fuel consumption, turndown ratio and specific energy consumption. It was found that the thermal efficiency of fixed bed advanced micro-gasifier cook stove ACS IES-15 is 36.7±0.4%. Experiments have also been accomplished to provide data to investigate the performance parameters of the new stove. Prominently the turndown ratio was found to be 3.3 shows better control on the combustion of new stove. Economic analysis of the stove reveals better pay back period for coconut shell.
Research Article
Achieving Sustainable Development Goals in the Niger Delta: A Corporate Social Responsibility Pathway
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0098,
ABSTRACT: Is corporate social responsibility (CSR) practice of international oil companies contributing to the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals in the Niger Delta? The international community prescribes a role for business in the good of society. In a similar vein, a significant segment of the literature suggests a positive role for CSR practice. However, adequate analysis of how this is unfolding remains a task yet to be accomplished. This paper examines whether CSR practice in the aforesaid region is contributing to the attainment of SDGs. It focuses on the new CSR model – Global Memorandum of Understanding (GMoU) – initiated in 2005 and 2006 by Chevron and Shell respectively, specifically in relation to goals number one, two and three, which focus on poverty, hunger, better health, and well-being. Relying on data generated from secondary sources, the paper addresses the aforementioned question, and argues that recent oil multinational companies’ CSR practice is yet to properly respond to the development needs of local community people.