2 results found.
Trends in Sonochemical and Hydrodynamic Reactor Strategies for Catalytic Production of Biodiesel: Effects of the Influencing Process Parameters and Kinetics
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0164, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11002
ABSTRACT: Biodiesel researchers need to understand the optimal conditions involved in the production of biodiesel from readily available biological sources, as several research works have reported on biodiesel production. Therefore, this paper emphasizes specifically, the process parameters involved in biodiesel production and how they affect biodiesel yields. These parameters include, but not limited to the feedstock selection, catalyst type to use, free fatty acid, temperature, kinetics, hydrodynamics and reactor conditions. In biodiesel synthesis, a high fatty acid methyl ester yield of up to 100%w/w at 60 oC has been reported, which occurred with a methanol to oil molar ratio of 3.75, and 60 min reaction time. Homogeneous catalysts seems promising for the production of biodiesel, although they possess disposal challenges and reusability issues. In addition, carbon-based catalysts from natural sources have been used to resolve the presence of free fatty acids in biodiesel synthesis that results in the formation of soap. These carbon-derived catalysts prove their efficiency when modified with acids. The reactor suitable for biodiesel reaction, assume several configurations, like the batch, fixed bed and semi-batch configurations, with their respective reaction conditions. Furthermore, in the design of a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor operating on the rotor-stator mechanism, research has shown that the ratio of rotor to stator diameter Dr/Ds is maintained at 0.73 for efficient operation. Hence, a proper understanding of the process chemistry and techniques involved in biodiesel synthesis would ensure a high desired yield and sustainable process route.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(4), 41, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3909
ABSTRACT: Sustainable Development (SD) is essential for modern economy. Sustainable Development Engineering (SDE) is a subsystem of SD and concentrates on the engineering sides of SD. Environmental Engineering (EE) is also essential for clean modern industry. EE is necessary for SD but is not sufficient, in order to make it sufficient the feedstock must be from Renewable Raw Materials (RRMs) sources. SD is formed of the sub-systems SDE, EE and RRMs. In this paper membrane catalytic reactors are used to achieve Maximum Production and Minimum Pollution (MPMP) by removing hydrogen from dehydrogenation side. The efficiency increases when a hydrogenation reaction is taking place in the other side of the membrane. This paper is addressing a practical case for this behavior giving MPMP which is necessary but not sufficient for sustainability. The further step to make it sufficient is the use of feedstock from RRMs which is not addressed in the paper. It is shown that the counter-current process is more efficient than the co-current one. This investigation and conclusions are obtained by reliable mathematical modeling, numerical solution and computer simulation of the model differential equations. More difficult ones for the Countercurrent case.