EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH

Volume 1, Issue 2, 2017

Editorial
How Can We Achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goals?
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(2), 6, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201706
ABSTRACT: With the approval of the UN Sustainable Development Goals comes several questions. How can we implement the UN Sustainable Development Goals at the national level? Must every country adopt and expend effort at achieving all of the goals? Or is it more suitable for countries to tailor the UN Sustainable Development Goals to the situations and priorities in their countries? The spirit of the agreement is reflected in the latter approach which, I feel, is the only practical way forward, if meaningful progress is to be made. To demonstrate this, an illustrative example is presented, describing the federal approach taken to achieving a sustainable future in one country, Canada.
Research Article
Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Induction on the Performance of Rubber Seed Oil Methy Ester Fuelled Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDi) Dual Fuel Engines
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(2), 7, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201707
ABSTRACT: Renewable fuels are in biodegradable nature and they tender good energy security and foreign exchange savings. In addition they address environmental concerns and socio-economic issues. The present work presents the experimental investigations carried out on the utilization of such renewable fuel combinations for diesel engine applications. For this a single-cylinder four-stroke water cooled direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine provided with CMFIS (Conventional Mechanical Fuel Injection System) was rightfully converted to operate with CRDi injection systems enabling high pressure injection of Rubber seed oil methyl ester (RuOME) in the dual fuel mode with induction of varied gas flow rates of hydrogen and hydrogen enriched CNG (HCNG) gas combinations. Experimental investigations showed a considerable improvement in dual fuel engine performance with acceptable brake thermal efficiency and reduced emissions of smoke, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and slightly increased nitric oxide (NOx) emission levels for increased hydrogen and HCNG flow rates. Further CRDi facilitated dual fuel engine showed improved engine performance compared to CMFIS as the former enabled high pressure (900 bar) injection of the RuOME and closer to TDC (Top Dead Centre) as well. Combustion parameters such as ignition delay, combustion duration, pressure-crank angle and heat release rates were analyzed and compared with baseline data generated. Combustion analysis showed that the rapid rate of burning of hydrogen and HCNG along with air mixtures increased due to presence of hydrogen in total and in partial combination with CNG which further resulted into higher cylinder pressures and energy release rates. However, sustained research that can provide feasible engine technology operating on such fuels in dual fuel operation can pave the way for continued fossil fuel usage.
Research Article
Energy and Exergy Based Optimization of Licl-Water Absorption Cooling System
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(2), 8, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201708
ABSTRACT: This study presents thermodynamic analysis and optimization of single effect LiCl-H2O absorption cooling system. Thermodynamic models are employed in engineering equation solver to compute the optimum performance parameters. In this study, cut off temperature to operate system has been obtained at various operating temperatures. Analysis depicts that on 3.59 % rise in evaporator temperature, the required cut-off temperature decreased by 12.51%. By realistic comparison between thermodynamic first and second law analysis, optimum generator temperature relative to energy and exergy based prospective has been evaluated. It is found that optimum generator temperature is strong function of evaporator and condenser temperature. Thus, it is feasible to find out optimum generator temperature for various combinations of evaporator and condenser temperatures. Contour plots of optimum generator temperature for several combinations of condenser and absorber temperatures have been also depicted.
Research Article
Regulation of Nanorefrigerant Use: A Proactive Measure Against Possible Undesirable Health and Environmental Implications
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(2), 9, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201709
ABSTRACT: Recent research studies have shown the very high potentials nanotechnology application has in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry for improving the thermophysical properties of refrigerants and lubricants hence leading to systems with higher COP and much reduced size. The successes achieved with nanorefrigerants are connected to the improved technology for the preparation of nanofluids that has led to achieving more homogeneous and stable mixture of the base fluid and nanoparticle. However, available literatures point to the fact that nanoparticles can find its way into the human cells and as such is a potential health risk for humans and animals. At present, emphasis appears to concentrate more on the technological successes achieved with nanorefrigerants, like improved thermal conductivity, nucleate boiling and boiling heat transfer coefficient without factoring in much the potential health implications of adopting it. This paper therefore looked at the potential health consequences of adopting nanotechnology and called for an early regulatory framework to guard against any unforeseen health issues. Areas of future research were also suggested.
Research Article
Investigating Differential Learning Outcomes of Students in Physics Using Animation and Textual Information Teaching Strategies in Ondo State Secondary School
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(2), 10, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201710
ABSTRACT: Background
The study investigated the main effects of animation information and textual information on students' performance and improving students' attitude towards physics.
Material and methods
The study adopted the pre-test post-test control group design. The population was made up of SSS 2 students in Ondo State. Three Local Government Areas were randomly selected from the 18 Local Government Areas of Ondo State. Simple random technique was used to select three schools in the selected Local Government Areas. The schools were randomly assigned to two experimental groups namely animation and, textual information strategy and one control group. Two instruments were used for the study.
Results
One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Scheffe Post-Hoc pair-wise comparison Analysis, and two-way Analysis of Variance was used. The results showed that there was a significant main effect of animation and textual strategies on students performance in physics. The results also showed that there was a significant difference in the post test attitudinal score of students' exposed to the strategies with the effectiveness in the order of animation, textual, and conventional strategies
Conclusions
The study concluded that computer- based instruction such as animation and textual strategies could enhance learning outcomes in Physics in senior secondary school irrespective of students' sex.
 
Research Article
Rapid Urban Growth and Land Use Patterns in Doha, Qatar: Opportunities for Sustainability?
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(2), 11, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201711
ABSTRACT: Amidst chaotic growth of Asian cities, the expansion of urban infrastructure in the Middle East's Gulf region is arguably outpacing any other region on the planet. Yet we have a limited understanding of the types of urban form or the extent to which this rapid urbanization is giving rise to sustainable patterns of growth. We ask, what is the pace and character of urban growth in one Middle East city, Doha, Qatar. By using remotely sensed imagery from 1987 to 2013, we examined the pace, quality, and characteristics of urban growth. We further use the results to create a typology of urban growth that integrates historical and spatial dimensions for describing the qualitative aspects of growth and its implications on regional landscapes. Our results suggest that Doha is creating development patterns similar to many Western cities, and that planners may need to consider whether the emerging urban form offers opportunities for more sustainable growth in the future.
Research Article
Preliminary Assessment of Noise Pollution Prevention in Wind Turbines Based on an Exergy Approach
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(2), 12, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201712
ABSTRACT: Most existing methods for energy transformation and use are inadvertently contaminating our water supplies, releasing greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere, emitting compounds that diminish the earth's protective blanket of ozone, and depleting the earth's crust of natural resources. As a result, scientists and engineers are increasingly pursuing sustainable technologies so that costs associated with global warming can be minimized and adverse impact on living organisms can be prevented. A promising sustainable method is to harness energy from the wind via wind turbines. However, the noise generated by wind turbines proves to be one of the most significant hindrances to the extensive use of wind turbines. In this study, noise generation produced by flow over objects is investigated to characterize the noise generated due to flow-structure interaction and aeroacoustics. As a benchmark, flow over a cylinder has been chosen for this study, with the aim of correlating three main characteristics in noise generation. Hence, the generated sound pressure level, exergy destroyed and the normal flow velocity (∪ ∞) are employed to characterize the system in order to relate the exergy destruction to the noise generated in the flow. The correlation has the potential to be used in wind turbine designs to minimize noise pollution due to aerodynamic noise.
Research Article
Performance Characterization of Gas-Solid Cyclone for Separation of Particle from Syngas Produced from Food Waste Gasifier Plant
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(2), 13, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201713
ABSTRACT: A biofuel from any biodegradable formation process such as a food waste bio-digester plant is a mixture of several gases such as methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3) and impurities like water and dust particles. The results are reported of a parametric study of the process of separation of methane, which is the most important gas in the mixture and usable as a biofuel, from particles and H2S. A cyclone, which is a conventional, economic and simple device for gas-solid separation, is considered based on the modification of three Texas A&M cyclone designs (1D2D, 2D2D and 1D3D) by the inclusion of an air inlet tube. A parametric sizing is performed of the cyclone for biogas purification, accounting for the separation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and dust particles from the biofuel. The stochiometric oxidation of H2S to form elemental sulphur is considered a useful cyclone design criterion. The proposed design includes geometric parameters and several criteria for quantifying the performance of cyclone separators such as the Lapple Model for minimum particle diameter collected, collection efficiency and pressure drop. For biogas volumetric flow rates between 0 and 1 m/s and inlet flow velocities of 12 m/s, 15 m/s and 18 m/s for the 1D2D, 2D2D and 1D3D cyclones, respectively, it is observed that the 2D2D configuration is most economic in terms of sizing (total height and diameter of cyclone). The 1D2D configuration experiences the lowest pressure drop. A design algorithm coupled with a user-friendly graphics interface is developed on the MATLAB platform, providing a tool for sizing and designing suitable cyclones.
Research Article
A Study of the New Environmental Paradigm Scale in the Context of Iran
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(2), 14, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201714
ABSTRACT: Industrial and technological change and increased urbanization has altered the face of nature. And nature is being consumed in the production of material goods. Environmental crises such as the condition of Lake Urumieh in north western Iran demonstrates that unregulated use of the natural environment disrupts ecosystems that threaten the survival of plant species, animals and humans. Environmental crises can be facilitated by human's inappropriate activities that occurs as the result of people's attitude to the environment. The aim of this paper is a revision of the New Environmental Paradigm and an evaluation on the NEP scale of the citizens of Tabriz. Results of exploration of related factors determined four dimensions, while evaluations determined by the Dunlap and Van Liere scale showed five dimensions. Average for the factor of citizen attitude in protecting the environment was determined as moderate. Also, there was difference for averages for the factor of citizen attitude to the environment according to gender. Results showed that women had a more supportive attitude than did men. The relationship between factors of education and economic prosperity to the environmental attitude is being shown a more supportive attitude to the environment under conditions of higher-level education and economic prosperity. Regression analysis showed that education explains approximately eleven percent of variance in terms of environmental attitude.
Research Article
Different Injection Strategies to Enhance the Performance of Diesel Engine Powered with Biodiesel Fuels
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(2), 15, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201715
ABSTRACT: The compression ignition (CI) engines are most efficient and robust but they rely on depleting fossil fuel. Hence there is a speedy need to use alternative fuels that replaces diesel and at the same time engine should yield better performance. Accordingly, honge oil methyl ester (BHO) and cotton seed oil methyl ester (BCO) were selected as an alternative fuel to power CI engine in the study. In the first part, this paper aims to evaluate best fuel injection timing (IT) and injector opening pressure (IOP) for the biodiesel fuels (BDF). The combustion chamber (CC) used for the study is toriodal re-entrant (TRCC). The experimental tests showed that BHO and BCO yielded overall better performance at IT of 19° before top dead centre (bTDC) and IOP of 240 bar. In the second part, the effect of number of holes on the performance of BDF powered CI engine was studied keeping optimized IT and IOP. The six-hole injector with 0.2 mm injector orifice diameter yielded better performance compared to other injectors of different holes and size tested.