European Journal of Sustainable Development Research

A Review of Renewable Energy Options, Applications, Facilitating Technologies and Recent Developments
Seama Koohi-Fayegh 1 * , Marc A Rosen 1
More Detail
1 Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario, L1G 0C5, CANADA
* Corresponding Author
Literature Review

European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020 - Volume 4 Issue 4, Article No: em0138

Published Online: 30 Jul 2020

Views: 340 | Downloads: 273

How to cite this article
APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Koohi-Fayegh & Rosen, 2020)
Reference: Koohi-Fayegh, S., & Rosen, M. A. (2020). A Review of Renewable Energy Options, Applications, Facilitating Technologies and Recent Developments. European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 4(4), em0138.
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Koohi-Fayegh S, Rosen MA. A Review of Renewable Energy Options, Applications, Facilitating Technologies and Recent Developments. EUR J SUSTAIN DEV RE. 2020;4(4):em0138.
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Koohi-Fayegh S, Rosen MA. A Review of Renewable Energy Options, Applications, Facilitating Technologies and Recent Developments. EUR J SUSTAIN DEV RE. 2020;4(4), em0138.
In-text citation: (Koohi-Fayegh and Rosen, 2020)
Reference: Koohi-Fayegh, Seama, and Marc A Rosen. "A Review of Renewable Energy Options, Applications, Facilitating Technologies and Recent Developments". European Journal of Sustainable Development Research 2020 4 no. 4 (2020): em0138.
In-text citation: (Koohi-Fayegh and Rosen, 2020)
Reference: Koohi-Fayegh, S., and Rosen, M. A. (2020). A Review of Renewable Energy Options, Applications, Facilitating Technologies and Recent Developments. European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 4(4), em0138.
In-text citation: (Koohi-Fayegh and Rosen, 2020)
Reference: Koohi-Fayegh, Seama et al. "A Review of Renewable Energy Options, Applications, Facilitating Technologies and Recent Developments". European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, vol. 4, no. 4, 2020, em0138.
A critical overview of renewable energy is provided, including descriptions of renewable energy sources, technologies, assessments, comparisons and planning as well as energy technologies that facilitate renewable energy sources. The renewable energy types considered include solar, wind, geothermal, bioenergy and waste-derived energy, ocean thermal energy, tidal, wave and hydraulic. Also covered for contextual and broader purposes are energy systems more generally and their sustainability. In addition, recent research on new renewable energy sources as well as important recent developments in renewable energy are considered.
  • Abbasi, T. and Abbasi, S. A. (2010). Biomass energy and the environmental impacts associated with its production and utilization. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 14(3), 919-937.
  • Abbasi, T. and Abbasi, S. A. (2012). Is the use of renewable energy sources an answer to the problems of global warming and pollution?. Crit Rev Env Sci Technol, 42(2), 99-154.
  • Ahmadi, P., Dincer, I. and Rosen, M. A. (2013). Energy and exergy analyses of hydrogen production via solar-boosted ocean thermal energy conversion and PEM electrolysis. Int J Hydrogen Energ, 38(4), 1795-1805.
  • Akella, A. K., Saini, R. P. and Sharma M. P. (2009). Social, economical and environmental impacts of renewable energy systems. Renew Energ, 34(2), 390-396.
  • Al Seadi, T. (2002). Quality management of AD residues from biogas production. IEA Bioenergy, Task 24–Energy from Biological Conversion of Organic Waste, Jan 2002. Available at:
  • Alva, G., Liu, L., Huang, X. and Fang, G. (2017). Thermal energy storage materials and systems for solar energy applications. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 68(1), 693-706.
  • Alvarez, R. and Liden, G. (2008). Semi-continuous co-digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste, manure, and fruit and vegetable waste. Renew Energ, 33, 726-734.
  • Alvarez-Silva, O. A., Osorio, A. F. and Winter, C. (2016). Practical global salinity gradient energy potential. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 60, 1387-1395.
  • Amoo, L. M. and Fagbenle, R. L. (2014). Hydrogen energy’s key contributions to the sustainable energy mix of a low-carbon future in Nigeria. Int J Sust Energ, 33(4), 742-765.
  • Andersen, A. N. and Østergaard, P. A. (2019). Analytic versus solver-based calculated daily operations of district energy plants. Energy, 175, 333-344.
  • Andersson, J. and Grönkvist, S. (2019). Large-scale storage of hydrogen. Int J Hydrogen Energ, 44(23), 11901-11919.
  • Angelis-Dimakis, A., Biberacher, M., Dominguez, J., Fiorese, G., Gadocha, S., Gnansounou, E., Guariso, G., Kartalidis, A., Panichelli, L., Pinedo, I. and Robba, M. (2011). Methods and tools to evaluate the availability of renewable energy sources. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 15(2), 1182-1200.
  • Arevalo-Gallegos, A., Ahmad, Z., Asgher, M., Parra-Saldivar, R. and Iqbal, H. M. N. (2017). Lignocellulose: A sustainable material to produce value-added products with a zero waste approach—A review. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 99, 308-318.
  • Armaroli, N. and Balzani, V. (2007). The future of energy supply: challenges and opportunities. Angew. Chem Int, 46, 52-66.
  • Armaroli, N. and Balzani, V. (2016). Solar electricity and solar fuels: status and perspectives in the context of the energy transition. Chemistry – A European Journal, 22, 32-57.
  • Asdrubali, F., Baldinelli, G., D’Alessandro, F. and Scrucca, F. (2015). Life cycle assessment of electricity production from renewable energies: Review and results harmonization. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 42, 1113-1122.
  • Aydin, M. (2019). Renewable and non-renewable electricity consumption–economic growth nexus: Evidence from OECD countries. Renew Energ, 136, 599-606.
  • Ayres, R. U., Turton, H. and Casten, T. (2007). Energy efficiency, sustainability and economic growth. Energy, 32(5), 634-648.
  • Azhar, M. S., Rizvi, G. and Dincer, I. (2017). Integration of renewable energy based multigeneration system with desalination. Desalination, 404, 72-78.
  • Bahaj, A. S. (2011). Generating electricity from the oceans. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 15, 3399-3416.
  • Bailey, I., West, J. and Whitehead, I. (2011). Out of sight but not out of mind? Public perceptions of wave energy. J Environ Policy Plan, 13(2), 139-157.
  • Bajpai, P. and Dash, V. (2012). Hybrid renewable energy systems for power generation in stand-alone applications: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 16, 2926-2939.
  • Balat, M. and Balat, H. (2009). Biogas as a renewable energy source—a review. Energ Source, Part A, 31, 1280-1293.
  • Baños, R., Manzano-Agugliaro, F., Montoya, F. G., Gila, C., Alcayde, A. and Gómez, J. (2011). Optimization methods applied to renewable and sustainable energy: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 15(4), 1753-1766.
  • Bartolozzi, I., Rizzi, F. and Frey, M. (2017). Are district heating systems and renewable energy sources always an environmental win-win solution? A life cycle assessment case study in Tuscany, Italy. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 80, 408-420.
  • Bayon, A., Bader, R., Jafarian, M., Fedunik-Hofman, L., Sun, Y., Hinkley, J., Miller, S. and Lipiński, W. (2018). Techno-economic assessment of solid–gas thermochemical energy storage systems for solar thermal power applications. Energy, 149, 473-484.
  • Bayulgen, O. and Benegal, S. (2019). Green Priorities: How economic frames affect perceptions of renewable energy in the United States. Energ Res Soc Sci, 47, 28-36.
  • Beran, L. and Dyckhoff, H. (2019). Global Biomass Supply and Sustainable Development. In: M. Behnassi, H. Gupta and O. Pollmann (eds), Human and Environmental Security in the Era of Global Risks (pp. 291-316). Springer, Cham.
  • Bouraiou, A., Necaibia, A., Boutasseta, N., Mekhilef, S., Dabou, R., Ziane, A., et al. (2020). Status of renewable energy potential and utilization in Algeria. J Cleaner Production, 246, 119011.
  • Breton, S. P. and Moe, G. (2009). Status, Plans and technologies for offshore wind turbines in Europe and North America. Renew Energ, 34, 646-654.
  • Brouwer, J. (2010). On the role of fuel cells and hydrogen in a more sustainable and renewable energy future. Curr Appl Phys, 10(2), 9-17.
  • Campos-Guzmán, V., García-Cáscales, M. S., Espinosa, N. and Urbina, A. (2019). Life Cycle Analysis with Multi-Criteria Decision Making: A review of approaches for the sustainability evaluation of renewable energy technologies. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 104, 343-366.
  • Carlino, S., Somma, R., Troise, C. and De Natale, G. (2012). The geothermal exploration of Campanian volcanoes: historical review and future development. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 16(1), 1004-1030.
  • Carrasco, J. M., Franquelo, L. G., Bialasiewicz, J. T., Galván, E., Guisado, R. C. P., Prats, M. A. M., Leon, J. I. and Moreno-Alfonso, N. (2006). Power-electronic systems for the grid integration of renewable energy sources: a survey. IEEE T Ind Electron, 53(4), 1002-1016.
  • Cavallo, A. (2007). Controllable and affordable utility-scale electricity from intermittent wind resources and compressed air energy storage (CAES). Energy, 32, 120-127.
  • Chamandoust, H., Derakhshan, G., Hakimi, S. M. and Bahramara, S. (2020). Tri-objective scheduling of residential smart electrical distribution grids with optimal joint of responsive loads with renewable energy sources. J Energ Storage, 27, 101112.
  • Chingulpitak, S. and Wongwises, S. (2014). Critical review of the current status of wind energy in Thailand. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 31(3), 312-318.
  • Chu, S. and Majumdar, A. (2012). Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy future. Nature, 488, 294-303.
  • Clauser, C. and Ewert, M. (2018). The renewables cost challenge: Levelized cost of geothermal electric energy compared to other sources of primary energy – Review and case study. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 82(3), 3683-3693.
  • Collet, P., Hélias, A., Lardon, L., Ras, M., Goy, R. A. and Steyer, J. P. (2011). Life-cycle assessment of microalgae culture coupled to biogas production. Bioresource Technol, 102, 207-214.
  • Connolly, D., Lund, H. and Mathiesen, B. V. (2016). Smart Energy Europe: The technical and economic impact of one potential 100% renewable energy scenario for the European Union. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 60, 1634-1653.
  • Connolly, D., Lund, H., Mathiesen, B. V. and Leahy, M. (2010). A review of computer tools for analysing the integration of renewable energy into various energy systems. Appl Energ, 87(4), 1059-1082.
  • Cuomo, M. A., Kool, E. D., Reddy, B. V. and Rosen, M. A. (2018). Energy modelling and analysis of a multi-generation renewable energy system for dairy farm applications. Biofuels. Published online: 28 May 2018.
  • Darwish, M., Mohtar, R., Elgendy, Y. and Chmeissani, M. (2012). Desalting seawater in Qatar by renewable energy: a feasibility study. Desalin Water Treat, 47(1-3), 279-294.
  • de Fraiture, C., Giordano, M. and Liao, Y. (2008). Biofuels and implications for agricultural water use: blue impacts of green energy. Water Policy, 10(1), 67-81.
  • de O. Falcão, A. F. (2010). Wave energy utilization: A review of the technologies. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 14(3), 899-918.
  • Debia, S., Pineau, P. O. and Siddiqui, A. S. (2019). Strategic use of storage: The impact of carbon policy, resource availability, and technology efficiency on a renewable-thermal power system. Energy Economics, 80, 100-122.
  • Deshmukh, M. K. and Deshmukh, S. S. (2008). Modeling of hybrid renewable energy systems. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 12(1), 235-249.
  • Desholm, M. and Kahlert, J. (2005). Avian collision risk at an offshore wind farm. Biol. Lett., 1(3), 296-298.
  • Devine-Wright, P. (2005). Beyond NIMBYism: towards an integrated framework for understanding public perceptions of wind energy. Wind Energ, 8(2), 125-139.
  • Dhyani, V. and Bhaskar, T. (2018). A comprehensive review on the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Renew Energ, 129(B), 695-716.
  • Díaz-González, F., Sumper, A., Gomis-Bellmunt, O. and Villafáfila-Robles, R. (2012). A review of energy storage technologies for wind power applications. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 16, 2154-2171.
  • Edwards, P. P., Kuznetsov, V. L., David, W. I. F. and Brandon, N. P. (2008). Hydrogen and fuel cells: towards a sustainable energy future. Energ Policy; 36, 4356-4362.
  • Eriksson, E. L. V. and Gray, E. M. A. (2017). Optimization and integration of hybrid renewable energy hydrogen fuel cell energy systems – A critical review. Appl Energ, 202, 348-364.
  • Evans, A., Strezov, V. and Evans, T. J. (2019). Assessment of sustainability indicators for renewable energy technologies. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 13(5), 1082-1088.
  • Fedak, W., Anweiler, S., Ulbrich, R. and Jarosz, B. (2017). The concept of autonomous power supply system fed with renewable energy sources. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, 5(4), 579-589.
  • Fox, A. D., Desholm, M., Kahlert, J., Christensen, T. K. and Petersen, I. B. K. (2006). Information needs to support environmental impact assessment of the effects of European marine offshore wind farms on birds. Ibis, 148, 129-144.
  • Franchini, G., Brumana, G. and Perdichizzi, A. (2018). Performance prediction of a solar district cooling system in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia – A case study. Energy Conversion and Management, 166, 372-384.
  • Gallup, D. L. (2009). Production engineering in geothermal technology: a review. Geothermics, 38(3), 326-334.
  • Gollakota, A. R. K., Kishore, N. and Gu, S. (2018). A review on hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 81(1), 1378-1392.
  • Hallenbeck, P. C. (2011). Microbial paths to renewable hydrogen production. Biofuels, 2(3), 285-302.
  • Hansen, K., Mathiesen, B. V. and Skov, I. R. (2019). Full energy system transition towards 100% renewable energy in Germany in 2050. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 102, 1-13.
  • Hanson, H. P., Bozec, A. and Duerr, A. E. S. (2011). The Florida Current: A clean but challenging energy resource. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 92, 29-30.
  • Heldeweg, M. A. and Saintier, S. (2020). Renewable energy communities as ‘socio-legal institutions’: A normative frame for energy decentralization? Renew Sust Energ Rev, 119, 109518.
  • Hemmati, R. (2017). Technical and economic analysis of home energy management system incorporating small-scale wind turbine and battery energy storage system. Journal of Cleaner Production, 159, 106-118.
  • Hepbasli, A. (2008). A key review on exergetic analysis and assessment of renewable energy resources for a sustainable future. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 12, 593-661.
  • Herbert, G. M. J., Iniyan, S., Sreevalsan, E. and Rajapandian, S. (2007). A review of wind energy technologies. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 11, 1117-1145.
  • Hertwich, E. G., Gibon, T., Bouman, E. A., Arvesen, A., Suh, S., Heath, G. A., Bergesen, J. D., Ramirez, A., Vega, M. I. and Shi, L. (2015). Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies. PNAS, 112(20), 6277-6282.
  • Holm-Nielsen, J. B., Al Seadi, T. and Oleskowicz-Popiel, P. (2009). The future of anaerobic digestion and biogas utilization. Bioresource Technol, 100, 5478-5484.
  • Hosseini, M., Dincer, I. and Rosen, M. A. (2014). Investigation of a hybrid photovoltaic-biomass system with energy storage options. J Sol Energ Eng, 136(3), 034504.
  • Hosseini, S. E. and Wahid, M. A. (2016). Hydrogen production from renewable and sustainable energy resources: Promising green energy carrier for clean development. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 57, 850-866.
  • Huen, P. and Daoud, W. A. (2017). Advances in hybrid solar photovoltaic and thermoelectric generators. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 72, 1295-1302.
  • Hussain, A., Arif, S. M. and Aslam, M. (2017). Emerging renewable and sustainable energy technologies: State of the art. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 71, 12-28.
  • Inayat, A. and Raza, M. (2019). District cooling system via renewable energy sources: A review. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 107, 360-373.
  • Infield, D. and Freris, L. (2020). Renewable Energy in Power Systems. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Inger, R., Attrill, M. J., Bearhop, S., Broderick, A. C., Grecian, W. J., Hodgson, D. J., et al. (2009). Marine renewable energy: potential benefits to biodiversity? An urgent call for research. J Appl Ecol, 46, 1145-1153.
  • International Energy Agency. Energy technology perspectives (2010). 2010: Scenarios and strategies to 2050. Report, IEA, Paris.
  • International Renewable Energy Agency, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, Technical brief; 2014.
  • Jacobson, M. Z. (2009). Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security. Energy Environ Sci, 2, 148-173.
  • Jain, C., Vogt, C. and Clauser, C. (2015). Maximum potential for geothermal power in Germany based on engineered geothermal systems. Geotherm Energy, 3, 15-35.
  • Jørgensen, C. L., Clausen, L. R., Algren, L., Hansen, A. B., Münster, M., Gadsbøll, R. Ø. And Haglind, F. (2017). Optimization of a flexible multi-generation system based on wood chip gasification and methanol production. Appl Energ, 192, 337-359.
  • Jørgensen, C. L., Ensinas, A. V., Münster, M. and Haglind, F. (2016). A methodology for designing flexible multi-generation systems. Energy, 110, 34-54.
  • Kabalina, N., Costa, M., Yang, W. and Martin, A. (2017). Energy and economic assessment of a polygeneration district heating and cooling system based on gasification of refuse derived fuels. Energy, 137, 696-705.
  • Kaldellis, J. K. and Zafirakis, D. (2007). Optimum energy storage techniques for the improvement of renewable energy sources-based electricity generation economic efficiency. Energy, 32, 2295-2305.
  • Kaundinya, D. P., Balachandra, P. and Ravindranath, N. H. (2009). Grid-connected versus stand-alone energy systems for decentralized power—a review of literature. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 13(8), 2041-2050.
  • Kaygusuz, K. (2009). Wind power for a clean and sustainable energy future. Energ Source, Part B, 4(1), 122-133.
  • Khare, V., Nema, S. and Baredar, P. (2016). Solar–wind hybrid renewable energy system: A review. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 58, 23-33.
  • Koohi-Fayegh, S. and Rosen, M. A. (2020). A review of energy storage types, applications and recent developments. J Energ Storage, 27, 101047.
  • Koračin, D., Belu, R., Canadillas, B., Horvath, K., Vellore, R., Smith, C., Jiang, J. and Mccord, T. (2012). A review of challenges in assessment and forecasting of wind energy resources. Croatian Meteorological J, 47, 13-33.
  • Kothari, R., Tyagi, V. V. and Pathak, A. (2010). Waste-to-energy: a way from renewable energy sources to sustainable development. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 14, 3164-3170.
  • Kuang, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhou, B., Li, C., Cao, Y., Li, L. and Zeng, L. (2016). A review of renewable energy utilization in islands. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 59, 504-513.
  • Kumar, R. and Rosen, M. A. (2011). A critical review of photovoltaic-thermal solar collectors for air heating. Appl Energ, 88(11), 3603-3614.
  • Lewis, N. S. (2016). Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization. Science, 351(6271), 1920.
  • Lewis, N. S. and Nocera, D. G. (2006). Powering the planet: Chemical challenges in solar energy utilization. PNAS, 103, 15729-15735.
  • Liserre, M., Sauter, T. and Hung, J. Y. (2010). Future energy systems: integrating renewable energy sources into the smart power grid through industrial electronics. IEEE Ind Electron Mag, 4(1), 18-37.
  • Liu, M., Steven Tay, N. H., Bell, S., Belusko, M., Jacob, R., Will, G., Saman, W. and Bruno, F. (2016). Review on concentrating solar power plants and new developments in high temperature thermal energy storage technologies. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 53, 1411-1432.
  • Lu, S. M. (2018). A global review of enhanced geothermal system (EGS). Renew Sust Energ Rev, 81(2), 2902-2921.
  • Lucia, U., Simonetti, M., Chiesa, G. and Grisolia, G. (2017). Ground-source pump system for heating and cooling: Review and thermodynamic approach. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 70, 867-874.
  • Lund, H. (2007). Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development. Energy, 32(6), 912-919.
  • Lund, H., Moller, B., Mathiesen, B. V. and Dyrelund, A. (2010). The role of district heating in future renewable energy systems. Energy, 35(3), 1381-1390.
  • Lund, H., Østergaard, P. A., Chang, M., Werner, S., Svendsen, S., Sorknæs, P., et al. (2018). The status of 4th generation district heating: Research and results. Energy, 164, 147-159.
  • Lund, J. W. (2010). Direct utilization of geothermal energy. Energies, 3, 1443-1471.
  • Mathews, J. A. (2008). Carbon-negative biofuels. Energ Policy, 36(3), 940-945.
  • Mathiesen, B. V., Lund, H. and Karlsson, K. (2011). 100% Renewable energy systems, climate mitigation and economic growth. Appl Energ, 88(2), 488-501.
  • Menanteau, P., Finon, D. and Lamy, M. L. (2003). Prices versus quantities: choosing policies for promoting the development of renewable energy. Energ Policy, 31, 799-812.
  • Messaoudani, Z. L., Rigas, F., Hamid, M. D. B. and Hassan, C. R. C. (2016). Hazards, safety and knowledge gaps on hydrogen transmission via natural gas grid: A critical review. Int J Hydrogen Energ, 41(39), 17511-17525.
  • Milenić, D., Vasiljević, P. and Vranješ, A. (2010). Criteria for use of groundwater as renewable energy source in geothermal heat pump systems for building heating/cooling purposes. Energ Buildings, 42(5), 649-657.
  • Muradov, N. Z. and Veziroglu, T. N. (2008). “Green” path from fossil-based to hydrogen economy: An overview of carbon-neutral technologies. Int J Hydrogen Energ, 33(23), 6804-6839.
  • Nair, N. K. C. and Garimella, N. (2010). Battery energy storage systems: assessment for small-scale renewable energy integration. Energ Buildings, 42(11), 2124-2130.
  • Narayanan, A., Mets, K., Strobbe, M. and Develder, C. (2019). Feasibility of 100% renewable energy-based electricity production for cities with storage and flexibility. Renew Energ, 134, 698-709.
  • Nathan, G. J., Jafarian, M., Dally, B. B., Saw, W. L., Ashman, P. J., Hu, E. and Steinfeld, A. (2018). Solar thermal hybrids for combustion power plant: A growing opportunity. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 64, 4-28.
  • Nayebossadri, S., Speight, J. D. and Book, D. (2019). Hydrogen separation from blended natural gas and hydrogen by Pd-based membranes. Int J Hydrogen Energ, 44(55), 29092-29099.
  • Noorollahi, Y., Saeidi, R., Mohammadi, M., Amiri, A. and Hosseinzadeh, M. (2018). The effects of ground heat exchanger parameters changes on geothermal heat pump performance – A review. Applied Thermal Engineering, 129, 1645-1658.
  • Ogden, J., Jaffe, A. M., Scheitrum, D., McDonald, Z. and Miller, M. (2018). Natural gas as a bridge to hydrogen transportation fuel: Insights from the literature. Energy Policy, 115, 317-329.
  • Olsthoorn, D., Haghighat, F. and Mirzaei, P. A. (2016). Integration of storage and renewable energy into district heating systems: A review of modelling and optimization. Solar Energy, 136, 49-64.
  • Omer, A. M. (2008). Ground-source heat pumps systems and applications. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 12(2), 344-371.
  • Østergaard, P. A., Duic, N., Noorollahi, Y., Mikulcic, H. and Kalogirou, S. (2020). Sustainable development using renewable energy technology. Renew Energ, 146, 2430-2437.
  • Ouedraogo, N. S. (2019). Opportunities, barriers and issues with renewable energy development in Africa: A comprehensible review. Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports, 6, 52-60.
  • Owusu, P. A. and Asumadu-Sarkodie, S. (2016). A review of renewable energy sources, sustainability issues and climate change mitigation. Cogent Engineering, 3, 1167990.
  • Pant, D., Van Bogaert, G., Diels, L. and Vanbroekhoven, K. (2010). A review of the substrates used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for sustainable energy production. Bioresource Technol, 101, 1533-1543.
  • Panwar, N. L., Kaushik, S. C. and Kothari, S. (2011). Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: A review. Renew Sust Energ Rev; 15(3), 1513-1524.
  • Parida, B., Iniyan, S. and Goic, R. (2011). A review of solar photovoltaic technologies. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 15(3), 1625-1636.
  • Paska, J., Biczel, P. and Kłos, M. (2009). Hybrid power systems – an effective way of utilising primary energy sources. Renew Energ, 34(11), 2414-2421.
  • Pelay, U., Luo, L., Fan, Y., Stitou, D. and Rood, M. (2017). Thermal energy storage systems for concentrated solar power plants. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 79, 82-100.
  • Pelc, R. and Fujita, R. M. (2002). Renewable energy from the ocean. Mar Policy, 26(6), 471-479.
  • Pepermans, G., Driesen, J., Haeseldonckx, D., Belmans, R. and D’haeseleer, W. (2005). Distributed generation: definition, benefits and issues. Energ Policy, 33, 787-798.
  • Perry, S., Klemeˇs, J. and Bulatov, I. (2008). Integrating waste and renewable energy to reduce the carbon footprint of locally integrated energy sectors. Energy, 33(10), 1489-1497.
  • Popovski, E., Fleiter, T., Santos, H., Leal, V. and Fernandes, E. O. (2018). Technical and economic feasibility of sustainable heating and cooling supply options in southern European municipalities-A case study for Matosinhos, Portugal. Energy, 153, 311-323.
  • Pöschl, M., Ward, S. and Owende, P. (2010). Evaluation of energy efficiency of various biogas production and utilization pathways. Appl Energ, 87, 3305-3321.
  • Prieto, C., Cooper, P., Inés Fernández, A. and Cabeza, L. F. (2016). Review of technology: Thermochemical energy storage for concentrated solar power plants. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 60, 909-929.
  • Qi, Z., Gao, Q., Liu, Y., Yan, Y. Y. and Spitler, J. D. (2014). Status and development of hybrid energy systems from hybrid ground source heat pump in China and other countries. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 29, 37-51.
  • Rahman, M. M. and Velayutham, E. (2020). Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption-economic growth nexus: New evidence from South Asia. Renew Energ, 147(1), 399-408.
  • Reddy, V. S., Kaushik, S. C., Ranjan, K. R. and Tyagi, S. K. (2013). State-of-the-art of solar thermal power plants—a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 27, 258-273.
  • Ren, J., Musyoka, N. M., Langmi, H. W., Mathe, M. and Liao, S. (2017). Current research trends and perspectives on materials-based hydrogen storage solutions: A critical review. Int J Hydrogen Energ, 42(1), 289-311.
  • Rezaie, B. and Rosen, M. A. (2012). District heating and cooling: Review of technology and potential enhancements. Appl Energ, 93, 2-10.
  • Romero, E., Novoderezhkin, V. I. and van Grondelle, R. (2017). Quantum design of photosynthesis for bio-inspired solar-energy conversion. Nature, 543(7645), 355.
  • Rosen, M. A. (2009). Energy sustainability: a pragmatic approach and illustrations. Sustainability, 1(1), 55-80.
  • Rosen, M. A. (2012). Energy sources: natural versus additional. Article in Jorgensen. S.E. (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Environmental Management, Vol. II, New York: Taylor & Francis (Book Chapter).
  • Rosen, M. A. and Koohi-Faegh, S. (2016a). The prospects for hydrogen as an energy carrier: an overview of hydrogen energy and hydrogen energy systems. Energy, Ecology and Environment, 1(1), 10-29.
  • Rosen, M. A. and Koohi-Fayegh, S. (2016b). Cogeneration and district energy systems: modelling, analysis and optimization. The Institution of Engineering and Technology.
  • Rosen, M. A., Dincer, I. and Kanoglu, M. (2008). Role of exergy in increasing efficiency and sustainability and reducing environmental impact. Energ Policy, 36, 128-137.
  • Rusman, N. A. A. and Dahari, M. (2016). A review on the current progress of metal hydrides material for solid-state hydrogen storage applications. Int J Hydrogen Energ, 41(28), 12108-12126.
  • Saidur, R., Islam, M. R., Rahim, N. A. and Solangi, K. H. (2010). A review on global wind energy policy. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 14(7), 1744-1762.
  • Schenk, P. M., Thomas-Hall, S. R., Stephens, E., Marx, U. C., Mussgnug, J. H., Posten, C., Kruse, O. and Hankamer, B. (2008). Second generation biofuels: high-efficiency microalgae for biodiesel production. BioEnergy Research, 1, 20-43.
  • Schmidt, D., Kallert, A., Blesl, M., Svendsen, S., Li, H., Nord, N. and Sipilä, K. (2017). Low Temperature District Heating for Future Energy Systems. Energy Procedia, 116, 26-38.
  • Sener, C. and Fthenakis, V. (2014). Energy policy and financing options to achieve solar energy grid penetration targets: accounting for external costs. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 32(9), 854-868.
  • Shivarama Krishna, K. and Sathish Kumar, K. (2015). A review on hybrid renewable energy systems. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 52, 907-916.
  • Solangi, K. H., Islam, M. R., Saidur, R., Rahim, N. A. and Fayaz, H. (2011). A review on global solar energy policy. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 15, 2149-2163.
  • Soltani, S., Mahmoudi, S. M. S., Yari, M. and Rosen, M. A. (2013). Thermodynamic analyses of a biomass integrated fired combined cycle. Appl Therm Eng, 59(1-2), 60-68.
  • Stehly, T., Beiter, P., Heimiller, D. and Scott, G. (2017). 2017 Cost of Wind Energy Review. CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL /TP-5000-52920.
  • Stougie, L., Giustozzi, N., van der Kooi, H. and Stoppato, A. (2018). Environmental, economic and exergetic sustainability assessment of power generation from fossil and renewable energy sources. Int J Energy Res, 42, 2916-2926.
  • Tegen, S., Hand, M., Maples, B. and Lantz, E. (2010). 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review. CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Report NREL/TP-6A20-72167.
  • Tian, Y. and Zhao, C. Y. (2013). A review of solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications. Appl Energ, 104, 538-553.
  • Toledo, O. M., Filho, D. O. and Diniz, A. S. A. C. (2010). Distributed photovoltaic generation and energy storage systems: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 14, 506-511.
  • Tsoutsos, T., Frantzeskaki, N. and Gekas, V. (2005). Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies. Energ Policy, 33, 289-296.
  • Turner, J., Sverdrup, G., Mann, M. K., Maness, P. C., Kroposki, B., Ghirardi, M., Evans, R. J. and Blake, D. (2008). Renewable hydrogen production. Int J Energ Res, 32, 379-407.
  • Uduman, N., Qi, Y., Danquah, M. K., Forde, G. M. and Hoadley, A. (2010). Dewatering of microalgal cultures: a major bottleneck to algae-based fuels. J Renew Sust Energ, 2, 012701.
  • Unique challenges in harnessing open ocean marine hydrokinetic energy. IEEE, OCEANS 2017 – Anchorag, Anchorage, AK, 2017, pp. 1-6.
  • Ursua, A., Gandia, L. M. and Sanchis, P. (2012). Hydrogen production from water electrolysis: current status and future trends. In proceedings of: the IEEE, 100(2), 410-426.
  • US Department of Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Centre. (n.d.). Available at: (Accessed 19 May 2020).
  • van der Heijde, B., Vandermeulen, A., Salenbien, R. and Helsen, L. (2019). Representative days selection for district energy system optimisation: a solar district heating system with seasonal storage. Appl Energ, 248, 79-94.
  • Varbanov, P. S. and Klemeš, J. J. (2010). Total sites integrating renewables with extended heat transfer and recovery. Heat Transfer Eng, 31(9), 733-741.
  • Varun, Prakash, R. and Bhat, I. K. (2009). Energy, economics and environmental impacts of renewable energy systems. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 13, 2716-2721.
  • von Colbe, J. B., Ares, J. R., Barale, J., Baricco, M., Buckley, C., Capurso, G., et al. (2019). Application of hydrides in hydrogen storage and compression: Achievements, outlook and perspectives. Int J Hydrogen Energ, 44(15), 7780-7808.
  • Wang, C. M., Yee, A. A., Krock, H. and Tay, Z. Y. (2011). Research and developments on ocean thermal energy conversion. The IES J, Part A, 4(1), 41-52.
  • Wang, K., Yuan, B., Ji, G. and Wu, X. (2018a). A comprehensive review of geothermal energy extraction and utilization in oilfields. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 168, 465-477.
  • Wang, M., Jing, R., Zhang, H., Meng, C., Li, N. and Zhao, Y. (2018b). An innovative Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system with performance simulation and multi-objective optimization. Applied Thermal Engineering, 145, 743-754.
  • Wang, Y., Suzuki, H., Xie, J., Tomita, O., Martin, D. J., Higashi, M., Kong, D., Abe, R. and Tang, J. (2018c). Mimicking natural photosynthesis: solar to renewable H2 fuel synthesis by z-scheme water splitting systems. Chem. Rev., 118(10), 5201-5241.
  • Wilson, D. G. (2012). Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air. J Air Waste Ma, 62(6), 607-624.
  • Wüstenhagen, R., Wolsink, M. and Bürer, M. J. (2007). Social acceptance of renewable energy innovation: an introduction to the concept. Energ Policy, 35(5), 2683-2691.
  • Xu, B., Li, P. and Chan, C. (2015). Application of phase change materials for thermal energy storage in concentrated solar thermal power plants: A review to recent developments. Appl Energ, 160, 286-307.
  • Yang, H., Cui, P. and Fang, Z. (2010). Vertical-borehole ground-coupled heat pumps: A review of models and systems. Appl Energ, 87(1), 16-27.
  • Yang, H., Wei, Z. and Chengzhi, L. (2009). Optimal design and techno-economic analysis of a hybrid solar–wind power generation system. Appl Energ, 86(2), 163-169.
  • Yang, P., Liu, K., Chen, Q., Li, J., Duan, J., Xue, G., Xu, Z., Xie, W. and Zhou, J. (2017). Solar-driven simultaneous steam production and electricity generation from salinity. Energy Environ. Sci., 10, 1923-1927.
  • Yaqoot, M., Diwan, P. and Kandpal, T. C. (2016). Review of barriers to the dissemination of decentralized renewable energy systems. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 58, 477-490.
  • Yilanci, A., Dincer, I. and Ozturk, H. K. (2009). A review on solar-hydrogen/fuel cell hybrid energy systems for stationary applications. Prog Energ Combust, 35, 231-244.
  • Yip, N. Y., Brogioli, D., Hamelers, H. V. M. and Nijmeijer, K. (2016). Salinity gradients for sustainable energy: primer, progress, and prospects. Environ Sci Technol, 50(22), 12072-12094.
  • Yoon, J. I., Seol, S. H., Son, C. H., Jung, S. H., Kim, Y. B., Lee, H. S., Kim, H. J. and Moon, J. H. (2017). Analysis of the high-efficiency EP-OTEC cycle using R152a. Renew Energ, 105, 366-373.
  • Zabihian, F. and Fung, A. S. (2011). Review of marine renewable energies: case study of Iran. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 15, 2461-2474.
  • Zeng, X., Ma, Y. and Ma, L. (2007). Utilization of straw in biomass energy in China. Renew Sust Energ Rev, 11, 976-987.
  • Zhao, H., Wu, Q., Hu, S., Xu, H. and Rasmussen, C. N. (2015). Review of energy storage system for wind power integration support. Appl Energ, 137, 545-553.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.