EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH

Volume 4, Issue 4, 2020

Research Article
The Psychology of Sustainability and Psychological Capital: New Lenses to Examine Well-Being in the Translation Profession
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0127, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7901
ABSTRACT: The psychology of sustainability and sustainable development is a new research area which involves optimizing and regenerating personal resources in order to establish meaningful lives and work experiences (Di Fabio, 2017). The concept of psychological capital (PsyCap) has been linked to the psychology of sustainability due to its potential role in promoting well-being in organizations and improving people’s health and performance. However, this area of sustainability science is currently absent from the translation studies literature despite its relevance for professional translators’ work in today’s challenging and competitive environment. In line with the argument that sustainability principles apply to a variety of disciplines, the purpose of this article is to introduce the value of the psychology of sustainability for organizational and individual well-being via key concepts of relevance to the translation profession. Within this trans-disciplinary reflection space (Di Fabio and Rosen, 2018), I will also consider the research evidence for adopting a primary prevention perspective for the benefit of professional translators. Examining translator behaviour through the lens of the psychology of sustainability is a new and exciting venture that has the potential to reframe professional perspectives and translators’ career paths.
Research Article
Effect of Digestate from Methane Fermentation using Ulva sp. and Food Waste for Cultivation of Decolored Pyropia yezoensis (Edible Laver Seaweed)
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0128, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8209
ABSTRACT: Ulva sp. (green seaweed) often proliferates explosively and piles up in shallows. This phenomenon is called “green tide,” caused by increased nutrient flow into an enclosed sea area. Although green tide is one of the environmental problems in coastal areas, Ulva sp. can be regarded as carbon-neutral and therefore can serve as an abundant feedstock for renewable energy. Methane fermentation is one of the suitable techniques for converting such seaweed into energy. Digestate from methane fermentation is normally used as fertilizer; however, it is ends up being treated as wastewater due to limited spaces in urban areas. This paper proposes that the digestate from methane fermentation using mixed biomass (Ulva sp. and food waste) can be applied to the cultivation of Pyropia yezoensis (edible laver seaweed, nori in Japanese), which has recently suffered from decolored phenomena because of decreasing nutrients. The absorption of nutrients and the color recovery of nori were investigated in laboratory-scale experiments based on comparison with artificial seawater. The results highlight that the significant absorption of nutrients and color recovery occurred because of digestate utilization, indicating its positive effects on decolored nori. In addition, the experiments found that not only NH4-N, but also other substances such as trace metal related to Ulva sp. can influence such effects. The findings clearly indicate that digestate can be used in the sea and that the suggested multiple uses of digestate would increase the value of digestate.
Research Article
Advanced Biofuels: Review of Effects on Environment and Socioeconomic Development
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0129, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8245
ABSTRACT: In the current scenario when depleting crude oil sources pose a challenge against energy security the advanced biofuels seems as suitable alternate for transport sector. Because of lignocellulosic biomass based production advanced biofuels are considered as environment friendly and they have positive income and employment impacts on the socioeconomic conditions. The study has objectives to test the aforementioned claims on the basis of a review of available literature. It is found that the GHG emission from conventional biofuels is not as much lower as claimed. But the advanced biofuels found to be more environment friendly than their counterparts. The data on socioeconomic impacts of advanced biofuel is scarce and only available for the USA which is reported in this study. It is found that the agriculture sector is significantly benefited sector by the industrial scale production of the advanced biofuels. For the assessment of large scale impacts it is assumed that the dynamics of spreading of socioeconomic impacts of advanced biofuels industry is same as the conventional biofuel industry. On the basis of aforementioned observations, this study also supports the notion of positive environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the advanced biofuels but on the conditions of sustainable and decarbonized supply chain.
Research Article
Global Capital Inflows, Growth, and Trade Indicators in Ghana and Nigeria: Evidence from Asymmetric Cointegration Framework
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0130, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8246
ABSTRACT: This study examined the impact of the dynamical nature of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflow and Official Development Assistance (ODA) inflow on growth and trade indicators in Ghana and Nigeria. Secondary data sourced from World Development Indicators for the period covering 1970-2017 were utilized. The Nonlinear ARDL Bound F-test showed a long-run relationship between global capital inflows and growth and trade. Specifically, (i) positive (rise) FDI inflow generate a positive impact on RGDP in Ghana and negative impact on RGDP in Nigeria; negative (fall) FDI inflow leads to a positive impact on RGDP in Ghana and negative impact on RGDP in Nigeria (ii) positive ODA inflow causes a positive impact on RGDP in Ghana and Nigeria; negative ODA inflow has a negative impact on RGDP in Ghana and Nigeria (iii) positive and negative FDI (ODA) inflow has a negative impact on trade (% of GDP) in Ghana and Nigeria (iv) positive and negative FDI inflow leads to a negative impact on multilateral trade in Ghana; and positive and negative FDI inflow leads to a positive impact on multilateral trade in Nigeria; (v) positive and negative ODA inflow leads to a negative impact on multilateral trade in Ghana and Nigeria (vi) positive and negative FDI inflow leads to a negative impact on trade openness in Ghana and positive impact in Nigeria, (vii) positive and negative ODA inflow has negative and positive impact on trade openness in Ghana and negative impacts in Nigeria.
Research Article
Diversification and Economic Growth in Nigeria (1981–2016): An Econometric Approach Based on Ordinary Least Squares (OLS)
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0131, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8285
ABSTRACT: Economic diversification has been the glamour of successive administrations in Nigeria, especially amidst the dwindling oil-revenue in recent years, which has resulted from the fluctuations in world crude oil prices. This study aims at investigating the impact of diversifying the economy on the economic growth in Nigeria. Secondary data on GDP growth rate as a proxy for economic growth, non-oil GDP as a proxy for GDP diversification, non-oil export as a proxy for export diversification, investment and exchange rate, between 1981 and 2016, were adopted in the study. An econometric approach of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) was adopted to empirically analyze the collected data and the result revealed that non-oil gross domestic product impacted positively and significantly on economic growth while exchange rate had an inverse but significant nexus on economic growth in Nigeria, within the period covered in the study. However, non-oil export and investment impacted positively but insignificantly on economic growth in Nigeria. The study recommends the encouragement of increased productivity in the real sector as well as the adoption of stable and favourable exchange rate policies by the government in order to accelerate economic growth in Nigeria.
Research Article
Evaluation of Luffa Cylindrica Fibers in A Biomass Packed Bed for The Treatment of Paint Industry Effluent Before Environmental Release
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0132, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8302
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of Luffa Cylindrica fibers in a biomass packed bed for the treatment of paint industry effluent before releasing into the environment. The fibers were modified by mercerisation in 0.5M NaOH for 24 h. Both modified and unmodified fibers were characterised using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). A biomass packed bed was prepared for the study with a packing factor of 0.0617 and 0.0550 for the modified and unmodified fibers respectively. Measured parameters were the pH, colour, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Negative findings were achieved for TSS, DO and COD whilst positive findings were achieved for pH, colour, TDS and BOD. The extended residence time of 48 h was only of advantage for colour and BOD removal. In the domain of the positive results, the untreated fibers achieved 35% colour reduction, 5% TDS reduction and 77% BOD reduction all in 2 h. The treated fibers achieved 35% colour reduction in 30 minutes, 32.5% TDS reduction in 2 h and 82% BOD reduction in 30 minutes. The fibers treated with NaOH performed better in all indices where positive results were achieved except for pH. Luffa cylindrica fibres can be used as effective packing material in a biomass filter for the treatment of paint industry effluent before releasing into the environment based on WHO limits.
Research Article
Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Environmental Damages: An Imperative Tool for Decision Making and Sustainability
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0133, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8321
ABSTRACT: Economics being a major field in management has paved its way into environment to tackle the issues concerned with environmental/ecosystem services degradation and is acting as an aspect of human wellbeing and sustainability. Environmental degradation due to pollution is very well known and is measured thoroughly throughout the world. However, the end point impacts are seldom measured and not reported. There are very few responsible companies in the world who are aware about this fact and are reporting these externalities, or the third-party impacts, of their businesses. Various facets of ecosystem services on the other hand are known and have various measurement frameworks as well. The current paper discusses both the aspects i.e. ecosystem services and environmental externalities with respect to assessment techniques and highlights the way in which these fields have developed over the years along with their current methods and trends. The paper will help researchers and policy makers, working in this field, by making them aware about various means by which these estimations can be done so that the gap between environmental degradation and sustainability can be bridged.
Research Article
Evaluation of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Garcinia Gummi Gutta Biodiesel and Diethyl Ether Blends
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0134, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8353
ABSTRACT: The novel garcinia gummi-gutta seed is used for extraction of biodiesel using transesterification process. The impact of diethyl ether (DEE) in biodiesel on the fuel properties was examined. The performance and emission characteristics of six fuels (B20DEE10, B30DEE10, B40DEE10, B100, B100DEE10 and D100) are tested on diesel engine from no-load to full load conditions. The addition of 10% diethyl ether to 20% biodiesel (B20) closely resemble the fuel properties of diesel fuel (D100) compared to other tested biodiesel blends. The performance parameters (brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE)) and emission characteristics (carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous oxide (NOx) and hydrocarbon (HC)) are examined for six fuels at different engine load conditions. BSFC of all biodiesel showed comparatively higher value to that of diesel fuel at all engine loading conditions. BTE of diesel fuel showed higher values compared to other biofuels. Biodiesel blends resulted in reduced carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions compared to diesel fuel. NOx emissions are higher for biodiesel and its blends compared to diesel fuel at all loads. Addition of 10% diethyl ether to biodiesel (B100) fuel resulted in better performance and emission characteristics compared to B100 fuel tested at full load engine conditions.
Research Article
Recent Developments in Biogas Manufacture and Biogas Utilization: A Review
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0135, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8366
ABSTRACT: The various developments in the areas of biogas manufacture and utilization have been surveyed. This includes alternate / multiple substrates that could be economically employed for biogas production, biogas enrichment (carbon dioxide removal), biochemical desulfurization of biogas, utilization of enriched, desulfurized biogas as automobile fuel (in place of CNG, LNG), for the production of syngas and a host of chemicals (including nitrogenous fertilizers) therefrom, production of phosphatic biofertiliser from ADS (anaerobic digester sludge) and synthesis of liquid fuels (mainly, motor gasoline) using Fischer – Tropsch process. The technical details and economic viability of each process have also been analyzed and highlighted.
Research Article
Kristalina Georgieva-led IMF Prediction, Shocks, and Stability in the West African Monetary Zone
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0136, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8406
ABSTRACT: Two compelling structural break models that deal with a known break (Bai 1997, 2010) and unknown common break (Pesaran, 2006) exist in the literature. However, the methodological framework underpinning structural breaks have enjoyed robust attention and filed with highly technical papers. This study considered the Pesaran CD test for cross-section dependence test, Least Squares Dummy Variable (LSDV) to determine heterogeneity in WAMZ, and Panel-ARDL (PMG) with a dummy variable-calibrated known break date to measure the statistical significance of DUM_FDI, DUM_ODA, DUM_IBRD, and Panel ARDL (PMG) without structural dummy-variable breaks. The motivating question becomes how Kristalina Georgieva-led IMF prediction consequently cascades into an intractable long-run effect on the WAMZ system. Due to the demand shocks from COVID-19 pandemic and supply shocks-supply glut from a price war between Saudi Arabia-Russia which has put the global economy into recession. The stability of the global economy is threatened, thus, since FDI, ODA is an integral part of global reinvested earnings (UNCTAD, 2020), hence this study is apt to unravel the impact of structural breaks in WAMZ arising from prior shocks between 1970-2017 from data sourced from World Development Indicators. This study measured how dummy variable (0, 1) structural breaks in foreign capital inflows (proxy by FDI, ODA, and IBRD) have long-term impacts in stimulating instability in WAMZ. We represented the dummy variable values 0 and 1; where 1 is structural breakpoints dates and afterward and 0 is used to denote before the structural breakpoints date. From the study, we observed that there exists cross-dependence in WAMZ at 1% LOS, heterogeneity also exists in WAMZ. Also, the impacts of structural breakpoints on selected macroeconomic indicators are mixed. The study found that the statistical significance of structural breakpoint at 5% LOS traces the susceptibility WAMZ to the rampaging health-related demand shocks and supply shocks in the long-run. Hence, a recession is likely in WAMZ. The study recommends that the regional government should undertake reforms to consciously diversify their economies and create market fundamental buffers, stimulate productivity and competitive supply frontier with a view to jump-start WAMZ economies from the impact of shocks and disturbances. In addition, provide stabilization funds to mitigate the adverse impact of shock-structural breaks on WAMZ economies.
Research Article
An In Silico Temperature Sensitivity Study of the Pyrolysis of Beech, Ailanthus and Spruce
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0137, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8407
ABSTRACT: In the current investigation, a temperature sensitivity analysis of hard and softwood pyrolysis was conducted on an in silico platform. The selected samples were beech (hardwood), ailanthus (soft hardwood) and spruce (softwood). Upon the successful development of the model on ASPEN Plus v8.8, the results of the model prediction showed that the yield of bio-oil reduced with a rise in process temperature. Beech had the highest bio-oil yield of the feedstock investigated. At 350oC, oil yield was 36.72%, 35.13% and 32.89% for beech, ailanthus and spruce respectively. The syn-gas yield was 39.99%, 38.25% and 35.82% and bio-char yield was 45.44%, 47.58% and 50.77% for beech, ailanthus and spruce respectively (at 650oC). For the entirety of the temperature range studied, a gentle fall in char yield was observed for all feedstock type (though more significant at temperatures above 500oC). The model also predicted the yield of volatiles (bio-oil and syn-gas) to be higher for the hard and soft hardwood than for the softwood and this was vice versa for the char yield.
Literature Review
A Review of Renewable Energy Options, Applications, Facilitating Technologies and Recent Developments
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0138, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8432
ABSTRACT: A critical overview of renewable energy is provided, including descriptions of renewable energy sources, technologies, assessments, comparisons and planning as well as energy technologies that facilitate renewable energy sources. The renewable energy types considered include solar, wind, geothermal, bioenergy and waste-derived energy, ocean thermal energy, tidal, wave and hydraulic. Also covered for contextual and broader purposes are energy systems more generally and their sustainability. In addition, recent research on new renewable energy sources as well as important recent developments in renewable energy are considered.
Research Article
COVID-19 and 20 Resolutions for Bangladesh
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0139, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8433
ABSTRACT: COVID-19 has affected 213 countries around the world, killing more than 484,000 and infecting more than 9.5 million by June 25, 2020 (worldometer.info). Bangladesh, a South Asian low-middle-income economy, has experienced a demographic and epidemiological transition with rapid urbanization and a gradual increase in life expectancy. It is the seventh most populous country in the world and population of the country is expected to be nearly double by 2050. The increasing burden of communicable diseases in Bangladesh can be attributable to rapid urbanization and nearly 50% of all slum dwellers of the country live in Dhaka division. In 2017, National Rapid Response Team of IEDCR investigated 26 incidents of disease outbreak. The joint survey of the Power and Participation Research Centre and BRAC Institute of Governance and Development reveals that per capita daily income of urban slum and rural poor drops by 80% due to present countrywide shutdown enforced by the government to halt the spread of COVID-19. 40%-50% of these population took loans to meet the daily expenses. However, the country has just 127,000 hospital beds, 91,000 of them in government-run hospitals. Researchers say, the country’s economy is losing BDT 33 billion every day from its service and agriculture sectors during the nationwide shutdown.
Research Article
Private Domestic Investment and Manufacturing Sector Output in Nigeria
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0140, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8479
ABSTRACT: This study examined the impact of private domestic investment on manufacturing sector output in Nigeria from 1970 to 2017. The study specifically looked at the impact of private domestic investment on manufacturing sector’s output in a static and dynamic model. Six variables were employed in the study and were sourced from CBN statistical bulletin and World Development Indicators for the period covering from 1970 to 2017. The analysis of the variables undergoes three approaches, the pre-analysis of data, model estimation and the diagnostic analysis of the model. The first approach employed tables and graphs to explain the behaviour of the data, equally the univariate analysis of the data were examine with the Augmented Dickey-Fuller equations and the possibility of long-term relationship. The models were estimated with the ARDL estimator and model selected with the Akaike Information Criteria, and finally the models estimated were tested using the Jaque-Bera statistics, Ramsey RESET Test, Breusch-Godfrey and Harvey test for residual normality, specification bias, autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity respectively. The results from the analytical methods shows that there is over 82 percent increase in the output of Manufacturing sector in the late 1970s and early 1980s and over 98 percent increase the output of the manufacturing sector in the late within 2010 and 2015. Also, the study observed that the responses of output of the manufacturing sector to private domestic investment are positive and significant in the static and dynamic models. The study found that the impact of private domestic investment on manufacturing sector output were fairly elastic in the static model and fairly inelastic in the dynamic model. Finally, the study found that the model have a weak adjustment mechanism. The adjustment of disequilibrium between static and dynamic equilibrium is weak or just 24.9 percent. Since private domestic investment is significant and positively impacted on the performance of the manufacturing sector irrespective of the time zone, the study recommended for increase in the credit to private sector by the apex monetary authority.
Research Article
Comparative Analysis of the Amount of Biogas Produced by Different Cultures using the Modified Gompertz Model and Logistic Model
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0141, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8550
ABSTRACT: With the increase in population, the amount of food waste generated is increasing exponentially. Anaerobic digestion can serve the purpose of managing organic waste in an eco-friendly way. Microorganisms play a vital role in the process of anaerobic digestion. In this work, the effect of anaerobic digestion was analyzed using two organic cultures- Cow Dung and Horse waste which was in turn compared to an Industrial Culture with regards to the biogas produced over a cycle of 14 days. Between the two organic cultures, the volume of biogas produced by Horse waste was 35,366.03 cm3 which compared to the biogas produced by cow dung was considerably large. The use of Horse waste as potential biomass has the capacity to produce biogas which can be utilized as a biofuel. The experimental data were evaluated using mathematical models like the Modified Gompertz Model, Logistic Model, and First Order Kinetics Model. Of the three models used, Modified Gompertz Model and Logistic Model gave a good fit for the experimental data with 0.98 and 0.97 respectively as the Coefficient of Determination (R2). While the First Order Kinetics Model underperformed with an R2 value of 0.68. The Modified Gompertz gave accurate results which thus validated the experimental data.
Technical Note
4-Stroke CI Engine: An Experimental Comparison of Performance Characteristics for 14% Biodiesel & Pure Diesel
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0142, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8568
ABSTRACT: Global oil reserves are facing great stress because of massive fuel consumption worldwide and the booming world population. These fossil fuels, when processed, affect the environment by releasing greenhouse gases. The outstanding usage of oil inspired many countries to develop alternative fuels. Biodiesel is the future prospect to fulfil the energy needs. It is compatible, ready to use fuel and can easily be deployed in the existing engines by combining it with conventional fuel (diesel). Biodiesel emits a lower amount of greenhouse gases. In this experiment, we first synthesized biodiesel using methanol, NaOH and vegetable oil through transestrification process. After that, we prepared a sample for 14% biodiesel which was then used to run a 4-stroke compression ignition (CI) engine that was attached to the engine testbed. After that, we re-run the same 4-stroke CI Engine with pure-diesel. From the data obtained and subsequent data-analysis, the 14% biodiesel came out to be less efficient (avg. 3% lower brake power and 8.9% lower brake thermal efficiency) and more expensive (avg. 12.8% higher fuel consumption) as compared to pure-diesel.
Research Article
Modeling of Vertical Transport of Hydrocarbons of Crude Oil Spills in Non-Convective Water Bodies Supported by Suspended Sediments: Case of Parts of the Nigerian Niger Delta Mangrove Swamps
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0143, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/9144
ABSTRACT: Crude oil spill is a major source of water pollution. In water with wave and tides, the environment could be self-cleansed. This kind of environment has enjoyed tremendous research attention over the years with plethora of models available for the forecasting, monitoring and management of residual petroleum presence in imparted environments. On the other hand, parts of the Nigerian Niger Delta mangrove swamp contain stagnant water with suspended sediments. The heavy load of suspended sediments has the capacity to adsorb oil and dissolved hydrocarbon components. This paper reports on the development of models for the vertical transport and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbon components at different strata of the water column by suspended sediments adsorption using governing equations of transport and mass transfer. The developed models were validated with data obtained from simulated stagnant water that was polluted with crude oil.
Research Article
Creep and Stress Relaxation Behaviour of Rice Husk Reinforced Low Density Polyethylene Composites
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0144, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/9284
ABSTRACT: The creep and stress relaxation behavior of rice husk reinforced low density polyethylene composite was analyzed in this study. The exponential and power model were used to study the creep while the stress relaxation assessed the time required for the composites to maintain a certain strain level. The creep strain increased with increase in time, at various temperatures, with its highest creep at 70oC while the lowest is at 30oC, the power model provided an excellent fit than other models with a coefficient of determination of 0.9977 at 30oC, the neat low density polyethylene had a good stress relaxation behavior with 4.95 seconds for it to decay and subsequently decreased with increase in filler concentration.