The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) involves various projects for the socio-economic development between China and Pakistan. This study determined the fundamental dimensions of sustainability, i.e., socio-economic opportunities and environmental impacts, with the development of the CPEC road project from Rehmani Khel to Kot Balian Package-2A. The primary data was collected through a survey method, while the secondary data was obtained through retrospective analysis. Statistical analyses, i.e., ANOVA, Chi-square, correlation, gamma, and factor analysis, were applied to testing variables. The study indicated that health services, education facilities, foreign direct investment (FDI), high income, and employment opportunities are positively associated with the CPEC road project, whereas negative impacts include environmental degradation, i.e., CO2 emissions, deforestation, biodiversity loss, and agricultural land loss, which have not been identified by previous researchers. Statistical analysis showed a significant and positive relationship between social-economic and environmental variables, while some of the variables perceived an insignificant relationship with the support of the CPEC road project. This study will contribute to the sustainability literature and provide a comprehensive analysis for stakeholders and officials to design a framework of precautionary measures to minimize the environmental impacts and promote the sustainability of road projects.
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