21 results found.
Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Horticultural Processing Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises on Energy and Water Use in Kenya
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(3), em0187, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12030
ABSTRACT: Horticultural processing involves intensive consumption of water and energy. It’s unknown whether the current energy and water use practices by micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) are sustainable. This study was conducted to investigate knowledge, attitude, and practices on energy and water use by horticultural processing MSMEs in Kenya. A cross sectional research design was adopted and purposive sampling was used to select 39 horticultural processing MSMEs. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The study found that the MSMEs had excellent knowledge on energy and water use efficiency. The study further found out that 75% of the respondents had a positive attitude towards the environment. Over 80% of the respondents had adopted simple housekeeping practices geared at conserving energy and water. Multiple linear regression indicates age has an effect on knowledge, attitude, and practices (R2=0.272; F=4.238; P=0.012). The other variables had a non-significant effect on knowledge, attitude, and practices. Despite the high level of knowledge possessed by the MSMEs, they still have not adopted long term practices that will lead to sustainability in the long run. In addition, the findings from this study reveal that MSMEs are not sufficiently motivated to move from positive attitude towards energy and water use practices. Subsidies and rewards could help MSMEs adopt practices that will lead to sustainability in this industry in the long run.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0168, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11132
ABSTRACT: Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing is a relatively new concept and promising technology for industrial production. It is important to investigate the environmental impact of the AM process in light of the environmental critical situation of the Earth. The elimination of some costly prefabrication processes such as molding or post-fabrication stages such as machining and welding required in traditional manufacturing methods favor the AM process and provide beneficial economic advantages. Furthermore, the reduction of manufacturing steps contributes to environmental protection through fewer operations, less material, and energy consumption, and reduced transportation. This study is a review for the assessment of environmental impact and life cycle of some well-known AM technologies for manufacturing metallic parts and components. The fabrication of a pump impeller is simulated through a well-known metal production AM technology and casting process for direct comparison. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is applied to measure the environmental impact in five different stages of pump impeller lifetime with the two different fabrication processes. AM compared to casting has an environmental impact reduction potential of 15%, 20%, 65%, 20%, and 10% respectively in Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidifications Potential (AP), Water Aquatic Eco-toxicity Potential (FAETP), Human Toxicity Potential (HTP), and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion (ODP). Using hydroelectricity and renewable electricity mitigate the environmental impact of the AM process in pre-manufacturing and manufacturing stages temporarily until the advancement of AM technology for consuming less energy. Recommendations for future research to enhance the environmental sustainability of the AM process is proposed as outcomes of this study.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0161, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/10952
ABSTRACT: Life without water is not possible on the earth, while modern humans need water not only for drinking, sanitization, and agriculture but also for industrial activities including electricity and cooling generations. Hence, emphasis on water sustainability through different sectors including thermoelectric and cooling plants is an intelligent strategy while the tight connections of water and energy guide study towards energy-water nexus investigations. Cooling towers are equipment for dissipating the excess heat by water evaporation or they hidden gates for wasting water. The objective of the present study is to elaborate on the role of cooling towers in improving environment sustainability by presenting various methods of energy and water modeling, categorizing various methods for modifying water and energy consumptions through past studies and mapping future studies. regarding cooling towers. Presenting a history of energy-water modeling methods of cooling towers, the Markel, the Poppe, and the effectiveness– Number of Transfer Unit (NTU) models, has followed by assessing the environmental impact of cooling towers in the form of excess water consumption, plume, and energy usage. Summarizing and organizing the past efforts for upgrading water management in cooling towers have been in two directions either providing more water supply, or modifications of the cooling tower to use less water. Then the different methodologies for each direction are introduced for further elaborations. This study’s practical outcome is proposing the methods of improving water sustainability for any cooling towers from past studies to assist engineers in the industry in modifying cooling towers water consumption. Showing the roadmap for the planning future investigations on the cooling towers based on the past efforts is another outcome of the present study to provide an insight for academia with research interest on cooling towers.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0159, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/10875
ABSTRACT: Baobab (Adansonia digitata) is a promising bio-resource distributed across Africa. A variety of biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, bio-oil and biogas can be prepared from feedstock derived from baobab. In this vein, different parts of baobab plant, for instance oil, fruit shells, and seed cakes can be utilized for biofuel synthesis. In this study, novozyme-435 (CAL-B) was used as a biocatalyst for biodiesel production. Oil to biodiesel conversion of 91.8±2.6% was obtained within 6 h reaction time at 50 °C when the molar ratio of oil to methanol was maintained at 1: 3. Biocatalysts are non-toxic and biodegradable, therefore sustainable for the process. The results showed potential use of baobab oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production.
Changes in the Landscape Character of the Studied Area of the Cadastre of the Municipality of Doudleby in the South Bohemian Region in the Czech Republic
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(2), em0153, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/9759
ABSTRACT: The landscape is a part of the earth’s surface with a characteristic relief, formed by a set of functionally interconnected ecosystems and elements of civilization. The sustainability of the landscape and its territory is examined on the basis of its ecological stability. This means the ability of a given system to persist even under interfering influence and to reproduce its essential characteristics in the conditions of external disturbance. The aim of the paper is based on content analysis, description of selected landscape, vegetation stage, determination of megatype sensu Meeus and method of calculation of ecological stability coefficient according to Michal and Miklós to determine changes in landscape character of the studied area. The result of the paper is the identification of changes in the landscape character of the researched area, as well as the proposal of a strategic vision for the landscape plan in the researched municipality in the cadastre of the South Bohemian region in the Czech Republic. Despite several uncertainties, this article proves that it is feasible to analyze long‐term land‐use tendency to generate more meaningful, spatially explicit information, which can form the ground for landscape planning and ecosystem management.
Stakeholder Engagement: A Conceptual Framework and Initial Validation to Foster Sustainability Development in a Maritime Cluster
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(1), em0149, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/9664
ABSTRACT: Sustainability development, as a concept, is becoming an important topic for discussion within the maritime industry due to its environmental impact and intensification of the compliance framework. Achieving sustainable development will require involvement from the industry diverse stakeholders. Yet the ongoing discussions and research studies on promoting sustainability within the maritime industry gave no attention to engaging the various stakeholders existing and/or operating within the industrial or professional cluster, whose absence from the decision-making processes may fail to address sustainability issues within the industry. This study argues in support of actively engaging the maritime industry diverse stakeholders to foster the implementation of sustainable development. Based on desk research and validation from subject experts, we propose a conceptual engagement framework that may be adopted by shipping entities to correctly identify and engage the industry key stakeholders towards promoting sustainable development.
Chemical and Enzymatic Valorisation of Confectionery Waste into Biofuel: An Application of Circular Economy
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(1), em0146, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/9291
ABSTRACT: Waste oil was extracted from lollipop effluent stream using a mixture of organic solvents viz. n-hexane and ethyl acetate. Lollipop effluent samples found to contain ~ 10-18 wt.% oil. Subsequently, the oil was subjected to biodiesel synthesis under solvent free condition using chemical and enzymatic catalysts. Among the base catalysts used, KOH catalyzed reaction gave highest biodiesel yield (99 %) in 20 minutes. Furthermore, nine different lipases were screened as catalysts for biodiesel preparation from lollipop effluent oil. The screening experiments revealed that Novozyme-435 was best among the lipases which gave 94 % biodiesel in 18 h at 40 0C.
4-Stroke CI Engine: An Experimental Comparison of Performance Characteristics for 14% Biodiesel & Pure Diesel
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0142, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8568
ABSTRACT: Global oil reserves are facing great stress because of massive fuel consumption worldwide and the booming world population. These fossil fuels, when processed, affect the environment by releasing greenhouse gases. The outstanding usage of oil inspired many countries to develop alternative fuels. Biodiesel is the future prospect to fulfil the energy needs. It is compatible, ready to use fuel and can easily be deployed in the existing engines by combining it with conventional fuel (diesel). Biodiesel emits a lower amount of greenhouse gases. In this experiment, we first synthesized biodiesel using methanol, NaOH and vegetable oil through transestrification process. After that, we prepared a sample for 14% biodiesel which was then used to run a 4-stroke compression ignition (CI) engine that was attached to the engine testbed. After that, we re-run the same 4-stroke CI Engine with pure-diesel. From the data obtained and subsequent data-analysis, the 14% biodiesel came out to be less efficient (avg. 3% lower brake power and 8.9% lower brake thermal efficiency) and more expensive (avg. 12.8% higher fuel consumption) as compared to pure-diesel.
The Psychology of Sustainability and Psychological Capital: New Lenses to Examine Well-Being in the Translation Profession
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0127, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7901
ABSTRACT: The psychology of sustainability and sustainable development is a new research area which involves optimizing and regenerating personal resources in order to establish meaningful lives and work experiences (Di Fabio, 2017). The concept of psychological capital (PsyCap) has been linked to the psychology of sustainability due to its potential role in promoting well-being in organizations and improving people’s health and performance. However, this area of sustainability science is currently absent from the translation studies literature despite its relevance for professional translators’ work in today’s challenging and competitive environment. In line with the argument that sustainability principles apply to a variety of disciplines, the purpose of this article is to introduce the value of the psychology of sustainability for organizational and individual well-being via key concepts of relevance to the translation profession. Within this trans-disciplinary reflection space (Di Fabio and Rosen, 2018), I will also consider the research evidence for adopting a primary prevention perspective for the benefit of professional translators. Examining translator behaviour through the lens of the psychology of sustainability is a new and exciting venture that has the potential to reframe professional perspectives and translators’ career paths.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(2), em0115, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/6438
ABSTRACT: Global challenges are complex, inter-disciplinary and span political boundaries. This warrants an integrative, multi-faceted approach involving the social, economic, ecological and technological disciplines. The integrative approach also needs to identify and empower local stakeholders such as indigenous communities. In this review, we provide a balanced view of opportunities and challenges which characterize the potential and insufficiencies of the current knowledge and institutional frameworks within the context of including indigenous/local communities in modern scientific research, especially in mitigating global challenges such as climate change and biodiversity loss.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(2), em0112, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/6429
ABSTRACT: Given the support of the global community of sustainable development, it is perhaps logical to infer that universities will be strong participants in the push to improve the sustainability of society in general, and among the leaders in efforts to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for 2015-2030. To ascertain if this inference is valid, it can be instructive to examine and assess universities for their contributions to the SDGs. This has in fact already begun, with the launch of a new global university ranking of universities, aimed at measuring their contributions to the SDGs. Here we examine how universities contribute to sustainable development, and whether such rankings can motivate and drive initiatives that support sustainable development.
Sustainability Subjects in University Education - Development of a Comprehensive Indicator System and Quantitative Analysis of Degree Programs at German Universities
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0092, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5771
ABSTRACT: A new comprehensive evaluation system presented here allows to compare and to quantify education for a sustainable development (ESD) in degree programs. The evaluation is based on a criteria system working with three hierarchic levels. The highest level considers a list of 35 indicator terms. Primarily, the two most popular undergraduate (bachelor’s) degree programs in Germany (mechanical engineering, ME, and business administration, BA) have been reviewed for ESD contents based on the new evaluation scheme. Additionally we reviewed and quantified ESD subjects and their temporal changes in the entire bandwidth of degree programs of a university (Umwelt-Campus Birkenfeld, University of Applied Sciences Trier), back to 1999. Moreover, a spot check on international ME and BA bachelor’s degree programs was performed. Through our reviews, we found a high number of elective classes dedicated to ESD particularly in BA bachelor programs. However, the percentage of compulsory classes related to ESD is relatively low with 5-6 % in both ME and BA programs, respectively. The spot check on degree programs outside Germany revealed similar results. Analysing the time trend at Umwelt-Campus Birkenfeld, a considerable share of ESD that was part of the original diploma degrees was moved to what are now master’s degrees.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(2), em0085, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5730
ABSTRACT: The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a framework for developing plans and policies for sustainable development, and have spurred an increase in research and activity in this field. There is no single approach to sustainable development, as approaches will vary from country to country, reflecting national and local needs and contexts. But care is needed in moving forward with the Sustainable Development Goals, if their benefits are to be realized. This issue of the European Journal of Sustainable Development Research marks its second anniversary, and demonstrates that the journal has already made a notable impact on the field of sustainable development through having published research on many recent advances.
Opening the Black Box of Psychological Processes in the Science of Sustainable Development: A New Frontier
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(4), 47, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3933
ABSTRACT: The psychology of sustainability and sustainable development represents a new research area in the field of Sustainability Science. It introduces a psychological perspective and enhances the trans-disciplinary framework that forms the foundation of Sustainability Science. Firmly establishing the psychology of sustainability and sustainable development as a research area means recognizing and integrating the value of psychology and the psychological approach in the construction of processes linked to sustainable development. Enriching sustainable development through opening the black box of psychological processes in support of sustainable development is a new and exciting frontier, that will likely lead to major developments and concrete advances for making development more sustainable in the 21st century and beyond.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 38, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/2670
ABSTRACT: Today we are facing environmental hitches such as deforestation and global warming, due to which atmospheric CO2 level has increased by 25% since 1850. It is human activities that have created these problems; hence, the resolutions to these encounters lie in behavioral change. Thus, it is only by empowering people that the environment can be protected. This study aims to explore reduction of printing at elementary schools by enhancing pro-environmental printing behavior. Literature review is presented in the following themes – demographic, impact of printing on the environment and pro-environmental printing behavior. An observation method is applied in this study and data is obtained from 108 teachers from seven elementary schools at three different regions in Northwest Friesland, The Netherlands by using digital print data and printers’ observation. The main findings illustrate that pro-environmental behaviour has a positive effect on the printing behavior. This research reveals that the experimental group printed 45% to 51% less during intervention. Therefore by extending pro environmental behaviour, financial and environmental costs can be minimized. This reading recommends directors of the schools to enhance pro-environmental printing behaviour among teachers to reduce both financial and environmental costs measured as use of paper.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(1), 09, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/76935
ABSTRACT: At the same time of providing a huge amount of energy to the world population (social sustainability) and global economy (economic sustainability), the fuel itself also releases a great amount of emissions to the environment the world people live in in the forms of gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx, CO, CO2, CH4, etc.) and ash compositions (Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, P2O5, SO3, SiO2, TiO2, etc.), seriously impacting the environment (environmental sustainability) for the world population and global economy. Sustainability generally encompasses economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, and social sustainability, and all of these are significantly related to the energy/resource sustainability. This study addresses the sustainability of fuel from the viewpoint of exergy. It is demonstrated that the energy of a fuel is best evaluated by its chemical exergy, and the environmental impact of a fuel can be assessed through the chemical exergy of its emissions (the specific impacts such as toxicity or greenhouse effect are not detailed). Then, the sustainability of fuel can be understood from the viewpoint of exergy through three ways: (a) high chemical exergy of the fuel, (b) high exergy efficiency of the fuel conversion process, and (c) low chemical exergy of the emissions.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(1), 02, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/79227
ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to offer an exploratory review of the approaches to sustainability within the UK’s waste management industry. The paper begins with brief outlines of the waste management industry in the UK and the growing interest in corporate sustainability. This is followed by a review of the most recent sustainability reports published by the leading waste management companies operating within the UK and the paper concludes by offering some reflections on current approaches to sustainability within the industry. More critically the authors suggest that the selected companies’ commitments to sustainability are couched within existing business models centred on continuing growth and consumption and that current policies might be viewed as little more than genuflections to sustainability. The paper provides an accessible commentary on current approaches to sustainability in the waste management industry within the UK and as such it will interest professionals working in the industry as well as academics and students interested in management and business studies, resource management and sustainability.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(1), 01, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/82777
ABSTRACT: This issue of the European Journal of Sustainable Development Research marks its first anniversary, and demonstrates that the journal has already made a notable impact on the field of sustainable development through having published research on many recent advances. The topics likely to be addressed in the future, and thus covered in the European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, are likely to revolve around the 17 Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(2), 6, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201706
ABSTRACT: With the approval of the UN Sustainable Development Goals comes several questions. How can we implement the UN Sustainable Development Goals at the national level? Must every country adopt and expend effort at achieving all of the goals? Or is it more suitable for countries to tailor the UN Sustainable Development Goals to the situations and priorities in their countries? The spirit of the agreement is reflected in the latter approach which, I feel, is the only practical way forward, if meaningful progress is to be made. To demonstrate this, an illustrative example is presented, describing the federal approach taken to achieving a sustainable future in one country, Canada.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(1), 3, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201703
ABSTRACT: Purpose- The aim of this paper is to review and reflect on the sustainability agendas and achievements reported by Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers. Design/Methodology/Approach- The paper begins with a short introduction to corporate sustainability, sustainability reporting and food and drinks wholesaling within Europe and the empirical material for the paper is drawn from reports and information posted on the leading food and drinks wholesalers' corporate websites. Findings- There are marked variations in the extent to which Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers reported and provided information on their sustainability agendas and achievements. These agendas and achievements embraced a wide range of environmental, social and economic issues but the reporting process had a number of weaknesses that undermine its transparency and credibility. The authors also argue that the leading food and drinks wholesalers' definitions of, and commitments to, sustainability are principally driven by business imperatives as by any fundamental concern to maintain the viability and integrity of natural and social capital. More critically the authors argue that this approach is couched within existing business models centred on continuing growth and consumption Limitations- The paper is a preliminary review of the sustainability agendas and achievements publicly reported by Europe's leading food and drinks wholesalers. Originality- The role of Europe's wholesale sector in addressing sustainability has received scant attention in the academic literature and this paper will interest academics and students in business management and marketing and employees and executives working in the distribution sector of the economy.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(1), 2, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201702
ABSTRACT: A high-level overview of the discipline of sustainable development is presented, aimed at providing the context and setting for research on and applications of sustainable development, in this lead article to a new journal. The status of sustainable development and its progress are described, as are challenges and needs that may impact its development. Definitions of sustainable development and its interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary dimensions are discussed and contrasted with single-discipline approaches. Examples of interpretations and needs for sustainable development are provided from such fields as energy, resource management, and engineering. Attitudes towards sustainable development are investigated, as is progress. Finally, an illustrative case study is described of a large sustainable development initiative, comprised of several integrated measures and activities.