European Journal of Sustainable Development Research

Kristalina Georgieva-led IMF Prediction, Shocks, and Stability in the West African Monetary Zone
Okechuku Onuchuku 1, Chukwuemeka Amaefule 1 *
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1 University of Port Harcourt, NIGERIA
* Corresponding Author
Research Article

European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020 - Volume 4 Issue 4, Article No: em0136
https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8406

Published Online: 19 Jul 2020

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APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Onuchuku & Amaefule, 2020)
Reference: Onuchuku, O., & Amaefule, C. (2020). Kristalina Georgieva-led IMF Prediction, Shocks, and Stability in the West African Monetary Zone. European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 4(4), em0136. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8406
Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Onuchuku O, Amaefule C. Kristalina Georgieva-led IMF Prediction, Shocks, and Stability in the West African Monetary Zone. EUR J SUSTAIN DEV RE. 2020;4(4):em0136. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8406
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Onuchuku O, Amaefule C. Kristalina Georgieva-led IMF Prediction, Shocks, and Stability in the West African Monetary Zone. EUR J SUSTAIN DEV RE. 2020;4(4), em0136. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8406
Chicago
In-text citation: (Onuchuku and Amaefule, 2020)
Reference: Onuchuku, Okechuku, and Chukwuemeka Amaefule. "Kristalina Georgieva-led IMF Prediction, Shocks, and Stability in the West African Monetary Zone". European Journal of Sustainable Development Research 2020 4 no. 4 (2020): em0136. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8406
Harvard
In-text citation: (Onuchuku and Amaefule, 2020)
Reference: Onuchuku, O., and Amaefule, C. (2020). Kristalina Georgieva-led IMF Prediction, Shocks, and Stability in the West African Monetary Zone. European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 4(4), em0136. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8406
MLA
In-text citation: (Onuchuku and Amaefule, 2020)
Reference: Onuchuku, Okechuku et al. "Kristalina Georgieva-led IMF Prediction, Shocks, and Stability in the West African Monetary Zone". European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, vol. 4, no. 4, 2020, em0136. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8406
ABSTRACT
Two compelling structural break models that deal with a known break (Bai 1997, 2010) and unknown common break (Pesaran, 2006) exist in the literature. However, the methodological framework underpinning structural breaks have enjoyed robust attention and filed with highly technical papers. This study considered the Pesaran CD test for cross-section dependence test, Least Squares Dummy Variable (LSDV) to determine heterogeneity in WAMZ, and Panel-ARDL (PMG) with a dummy variable-calibrated known break date to measure the statistical significance of DUM_FDI, DUM_ODA, DUM_IBRD, and Panel ARDL (PMG) without structural dummy-variable breaks. The motivating question becomes how Kristalina Georgieva-led IMF prediction consequently cascades into an intractable long-run effect on the WAMZ system. Due to the demand shocks from COVID-19 pandemic and supply shocks-supply glut from a price war between Saudi Arabia-Russia which has put the global economy into recession. The stability of the global economy is threatened, thus, since FDI, ODA is an integral part of global reinvested earnings (UNCTAD, 2020), hence this study is apt to unravel the impact of structural breaks in WAMZ arising from prior shocks between 1970-2017 from data sourced from World Development Indicators. This study measured how dummy variable (0, 1) structural breaks in foreign capital inflows (proxy by FDI, ODA, and IBRD) have long-term impacts in stimulating instability in WAMZ. We represented the dummy variable values 0 and 1; where 1 is structural breakpoints dates and afterward and 0 is used to denote before the structural breakpoints date. From the study, we observed that there exists cross-dependence in WAMZ at 1% LOS, heterogeneity also exists in WAMZ. Also, the impacts of structural breakpoints on selected macroeconomic indicators are mixed. The study found that the statistical significance of structural breakpoint at 5% LOS traces the susceptibility WAMZ to the rampaging health-related demand shocks and supply shocks in the long-run. Hence, a recession is likely in WAMZ. The study recommends that the regional government should undertake reforms to consciously diversify their economies and create market fundamental buffers, stimulate productivity and competitive supply frontier with a view to jump-start WAMZ economies from the impact of shocks and disturbances. In addition, provide stabilization funds to mitigate the adverse impact of shock-structural breaks on WAMZ economies.
KEYWORDS
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