EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH

Keyword: SAC

2 results found.

Research Article
Slow Catalytic Pyrolysis of Saccharum munja using Bio-genically Synthesized Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticles for the Production of high yield Biofuel
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(3), em0126, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7900
ABSTRACT: In this study, the slow pyrolysis has been performed in a fixed bed reactor using Saccharum munja (munj) as raw biomass material and bio-genically synthesized nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NF-NPs) as a catalyst at an optimum temperature of 450 oC. In the absence of any catalyst, the obtained yield of bio-oil was 43.3 %. The maximum yield of bio-oil (72 %) was obtained with 0.4 g of NF-NPs. With 0.2g of ZSM-5, the obtained bio-oil yield was 44.5 %. The characterization of NF-NPs was studied by using UV-VIS analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The characterization of Bio-char was done by using FT-IR spectroscopy.
Research Article
The Kinetics of the Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Jatropha Oil using Glycerol based Solid Acid Catalyst
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(2), em0116, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7594
ABSTRACT: The studied work presents the kinetics of the esterification of Free Fatty Acids (FFA) in jatropha oil with methanol (Alc) using glycerol based solid acid catalyst (SAC) at varying catalyst mass concentrations from 2.5 to 4.0 %, temperature 50-65 °C that is upto refluxing temperature and atmospheric pressure and Alc-FFA mole ratios ranging from 7.2:1 to 28.8:1 with respect to the FFA present in the oil matrix. The optimized esterification parameters were observed as 3.5% mass concentration of glycerol based SAC with 21.6:1, Alc-FFA mole ratio at temperature of 65 °C for a time period of 4 h which provided a conversion of about 97.03%. Based on the experimental results a second order kinetic model is proposed. The temperature influence on the rate of the reaction, Arrhenius constants and activation energies were evaluated. The reaction heat and energy of activation for the reaction were found to be 10.315 kcal/mol and 11.38 kcal/mol respectively.