2 results found.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(1), em0151, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/9676
ABSTRACT: This study aims to determine the extent to which the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) can fulfill the Expost conditions for achieving convergence. This study, therefore, evaluates the pattern of shock symmetry and convergence in connection to WAMZ’s Pillar III policy strategy. Time series data sourced from the World Bank for the period covering 1970 to 2017 were utilized for this study. Two basic econometric tools such as Impulse Response Function (IRF) and the ADF convergence test were employed to determine whether WAMZ can achieve selected Macroeconomic Convergence Criteria (MCC) in the long-run. From the study, we found that WAMZ is not a full potential candidate for ECO Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) due to the inability of the available results to show overall shock asymmetry in the entire models studied. Also, the study found that WAMZ could attain convergence in its inflation targets, but could not attain convergence in its GDP targets. Thus the results imply that in the long-run, WAMZ does not practically possess the attribute to achieve its MCC. Hence, it is imperative that for the adoption of the ECO currency, WAMZ should design and implement a short-run adjustment method to manage country-wise shocks and implement structural buffers to guard the WAMZ economies against structural shocks. Hence, we recommend that ECO currency be a reserve currency managed by the West African Currency Board (WACB) while the EMU member maintains its domestic currency. WAMZ is basically a quasi EMU.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0136, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8406
ABSTRACT: Two compelling structural break models that deal with a known break (Bai 1997, 2010) and unknown common break (Pesaran, 2006) exist in the literature. However, the methodological framework underpinning structural breaks have enjoyed robust attention and filed with highly technical papers. This study considered the Pesaran CD test for cross-section dependence test, Least Squares Dummy Variable (LSDV) to determine heterogeneity in WAMZ, and Panel-ARDL (PMG) with a dummy variable-calibrated known break date to measure the statistical significance of DUM_FDI, DUM_ODA, DUM_IBRD, and Panel ARDL (PMG) without structural dummy-variable breaks. The motivating question becomes how Kristalina Georgieva-led IMF prediction consequently cascades into an intractable long-run effect on the WAMZ system. Due to the demand shocks from COVID-19 pandemic and supply shocks-supply glut from a price war between Saudi Arabia-Russia which has put the global economy into recession. The stability of the global economy is threatened, thus, since FDI, ODA is an integral part of global reinvested earnings (UNCTAD, 2020), hence this study is apt to unravel the impact of structural breaks in WAMZ arising from prior shocks between 1970-2017 from data sourced from World Development Indicators. This study measured how dummy variable (0, 1) structural breaks in foreign capital inflows (proxy by FDI, ODA, and IBRD) have long-term impacts in stimulating instability in WAMZ. We represented the dummy variable values 0 and 1; where 1 is structural breakpoints dates and afterward and 0 is used to denote before the structural breakpoints date. From the study, we observed that there exists cross-dependence in WAMZ at 1% LOS, heterogeneity also exists in WAMZ. Also, the impacts of structural breakpoints on selected macroeconomic indicators are mixed. The study found that the statistical significance of structural breakpoint at 5% LOS traces the susceptibility WAMZ to the rampaging health-related demand shocks and supply shocks in the long-run. Hence, a recession is likely in WAMZ. The study recommends that the regional government should undertake reforms to consciously diversify their economies and create market fundamental buffers, stimulate productivity and competitive supply frontier with a view to jump-start WAMZ economies from the impact of shocks and disturbances. In addition, provide stabilization funds to mitigate the adverse impact of shock-structural breaks on WAMZ economies.