Keyword: models

3 results found.

Research Article
Determination of Logistic Model Parameters From AM2 Model for Methane Production for Batch Bioreactors
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(4), em0171,
ABSTRACT: Modeling the estimation of cumulated methane production generated from batch anaerobic bioreactors is of paramount importance. In this context, there are two main modeling approaches. The first approach is based on developing mathematical expressions representing the processes involved in the bioreactors. The AM1 model is known as the most complete one. However, it is a complicated model as it requires about 80 parameters to be tuned. A model named AM2 which is a simplified version of AM1 has also been developed. It is based on only two microbial growth processes and requires only 13 parameters. Nevertheless, both AM1 and AM2 models do not provide explicit mathematical expressions that enable to estimate the temporal evolution of methane production with respect to the parameters involved in the considered models. These models are much more useful for simulations and graphical visualizations of the dynamical behavior of the state variables including methane production. On the other hand, the second approach suggests semi-empirical or data-driven models which are based on simple explicit mathematical expressions that provide an estimate of the cumulated methane production (Logistic model, Gompertz model, etc.). But, this type of models require the identification of few parameters which are extracted from experimental data. Usually, they are simplistic and use only one growth process and thus cannot exhibit the influence of the many parameters involved in such complex dynamic biotechnological systems.
In this paper, to overcome the complexity of the first type of models and to avoid the dependency on experimental data in the second type; an explicit analytical mathematical expression is proposed for estimating the cumulated methane production for batch anaerobic bioreactors. This analytical expression is derived via the adoption of some appropriate approximations performed on the set of differential equations characterizing the AM2 model. Therefore, the proposed analytical expression can be considered as an approximation of the AM2 model itself and this is the first contribution of this paper. Graphical profiles of the cumulated methane production are presented showing that of the proposed logistic expression and that of the AM2 model considered as a reference. To the best of the author’s knowledge, no such approach and result have been encountered in the literature.
On the other hand, this expression resembles formally to the semi-empiric logistic model. However, the equivalent parameters of the proposed expression as self-defined by the parameters of the AM2 model and do not require experimental data to be identified as it is for the semi-empiric logistic model. Moreover, by comparing the proposed logistic model to the semi-empiric logistic model, an identification of the parameters of the semi-empiric model is linked to the parameters of the AM2 model, providing more insight into the methane production. This can be considered as a second contribution of this paper.
Research Article
Modeling of Vertical Transport of Hydrocarbons of Crude Oil Spills in Non-Convective Water Bodies Supported by Suspended Sediments: Case of Parts of the Nigerian Niger Delta Mangrove Swamps
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0143,
ABSTRACT: Crude oil spill is a major source of water pollution. In water with wave and tides, the environment could be self-cleansed. This kind of environment has enjoyed tremendous research attention over the years with plethora of models available for the forecasting, monitoring and management of residual petroleum presence in imparted environments. On the other hand, parts of the Nigerian Niger Delta mangrove swamp contain stagnant water with suspended sediments. The heavy load of suspended sediments has the capacity to adsorb oil and dissolved hydrocarbon components. This paper reports on the development of models for the vertical transport and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbon components at different strata of the water column by suspended sediments adsorption using governing equations of transport and mass transfer. The developed models were validated with data obtained from simulated stagnant water that was polluted with crude oil.
Research Article
Pyrolysis of Waste Castor Seed Cake: A Thermo-Kinetics Study
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(2), 18,
ABSTRACT: Biomass pyrolysis is a thermo-chemical conversion process that is of both industrial and ecological importance. The efficient chemical transformation of waste biomass to numerous products via pyrolysis reactions depends on process kinetic rates; hence the need for kinetic models to best design and operate the pyrolysis. Also, for an efficient design of an environmentally sustainable pyrolysis process of a specific lignocellulosic waste, a proper understanding of its thermo-kinetic behavior is imperative. Thus, pyrolysis kinetics of castor seed de-oiled cake (Ricinus communis) using thermogravimetric technique was studied. The decomposition of the cake was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere with a flow rate of 100mL min-1 from ambient temperature to 900 °C. The results of the thermal profile showed moisture removal and devolatilization stages, and maximum decomposition of the cake occurred at a temperature of 200-400 °C. The kinetic parameters such as apparent activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and order of reaction were determined using Friedman (FD), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) kinetic models. The average apparent activation energy values of 124.61, 126.95 and 129.80 kJmol-1 were calculated from the slopes of the respective models. The apparent activation energy values obtained depends on conversion, which is an evidence of multi-step kinetic process during the pyrolytic decomposition of the cake. The kinetic data would be of immense benefit to model, design and develop a suitable thermo-chemical system for the conversion of waste de-oil cake to energy carrier.