Optimization of biodiesel production from coconut oil using a bifunctional catalyst derived from crab shell and coconut shell
Favour Okechi Ifeanyi-Nze 1 * , Charles Olumakinde Omiyale 2 , Mary Mbahi Asugu 3 , Olaoluwa John Adeleke 4 , Samuel Boluwaji Lanade 5 , Isaac Ayebanuwa Odumah 6 , Idrees Babatunde Idrees 7 , Ganiyu Ayomide Adebayo 8 , Adeyemi Gbolahan Sherif 9 , Innocent Ugochukwu Okonkwo 10 , Precious Ada Josiah 11 , Benjamin Nnamdi Chukwu 12 , Bethel Chijioke Iheanacho 13 , Nathaniel Nwoke Chimezie 14
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1 Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, NIGERIA2 Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, NIGERIA3 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Federal University of Kashere, Kashere, Gombe State, NIGERIA4 Department of Electrical Engineering, The Polytechnic Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, NIGERIA5 Department of Geology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, NIGERIA6 Department of Chemical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, HUNGARY7 Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos, NIGERIA8 Department of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NIGERIA9 Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, NIGERIA10 Department of Chemical Engineering, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Uli, Uli, Anambra, NIGERIA11 Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, Effurun, Delta State, NIGERIA12 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, GHANA13 Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Owerri, Imo State, NIGERIA14 Department of Environmental Management, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Owerri, Imo State, NIGERIA* Corresponding Author


The utilization of renewable biomass resources for biofuel production has gained widespread popularity as an effective means of converting waste into a valuable resource. This study investigated the optimization of biodiesel production from coconut oil (CO) using a bifunctional catalyst derived from crab shell and coconut shell. The catalyst underwent characterization through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The acid precursor for the bio-based bifunctional catalyst was created from carbonized and sulfurized coconut shell, while the base precursor was obtained from calcined and KOH-treated crab shell. The experimental design was optimized using Box-Behnken design for the simultaneous esterification and transesterification of CO. Response surface methodology was employed to model and optimize the process. Under the determined ideal conditions, which included a methanol to oil ratio of 16.75:1, a 1.00% catalyst loading, a temperature of 58.19 °C, and a reaction time of 78.76 minutes, a CO methyl ester yield of 85.73% was achieved under experimental conditions. This yield closely aligned with the predicted range of 85.84% as per the model. The resulting methyl ester (biodiesel) obtained under these optimized conditions exhibited physicochemical properties well within the requirements specified by ASTM D6751 set by the International Organization of Standardization.


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Article Type: Research Article

EUR J SUSTAIN DEV RES, 2024, Volume 8, Issue 1, Article No: em0250


Publication date: 09 Feb 2024

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