Keyword: FFA

3 results found.

Review Article
Trends in Sonochemical and Hydrodynamic Reactor Strategies for Catalytic Production of Biodiesel: Effects of the Influencing Process Parameters and Kinetics
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0164,
ABSTRACT: Biodiesel researchers need to understand the optimal conditions involved in the production of biodiesel from readily available biological sources, as several research works have reported on biodiesel production. Therefore, this paper emphasizes specifically, the process parameters involved in biodiesel production and how they affect biodiesel yields. These parameters include, but not limited to the feedstock selection, catalyst type to use, free fatty acid, temperature, kinetics, hydrodynamics and reactor conditions. In biodiesel synthesis, a high fatty acid methyl ester yield of up to 100%w/w at 60 oC has been reported, which occurred with a methanol to oil molar ratio of 3.75, and 60 min reaction time. Homogeneous catalysts seems promising for the production of biodiesel, although they possess disposal challenges and reusability issues. In addition, carbon-based catalysts from natural sources have been used to resolve the presence of free fatty acids in biodiesel synthesis that results in the formation of soap. These carbon-derived catalysts prove their efficiency when modified with acids. The reactor suitable for biodiesel reaction, assume several configurations, like the batch, fixed bed and semi-batch configurations, with their respective reaction conditions. Furthermore, in the design of a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor operating on the rotor-stator mechanism, research has shown that the ratio of rotor to stator diameter Dr/Ds is maintained at 0.73 for efficient operation. Hence, a proper understanding of the process chemistry and techniques involved in biodiesel synthesis would ensure a high desired yield and sustainable process route.
Research Article
Evaluation of Luffa Cylindrica Fibers in A Biomass Packed Bed for The Treatment of Paint Industry Effluent Before Environmental Release
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0132,
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of Luffa Cylindrica fibers in a biomass packed bed for the treatment of paint industry effluent before releasing into the environment. The fibers were modified by mercerisation in 0.5M NaOH for 24 h. Both modified and unmodified fibers were characterised using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). A biomass packed bed was prepared for the study with a packing factor of 0.0617 and 0.0550 for the modified and unmodified fibers respectively. Measured parameters were the pH, colour, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Negative findings were achieved for TSS, DO and COD whilst positive findings were achieved for pH, colour, TDS and BOD. The extended residence time of 48 h was only of advantage for colour and BOD removal. In the domain of the positive results, the untreated fibers achieved 35% colour reduction, 5% TDS reduction and 77% BOD reduction all in 2 h. The treated fibers achieved 35% colour reduction in 30 minutes, 32.5% TDS reduction in 2 h and 82% BOD reduction in 30 minutes. The fibers treated with NaOH performed better in all indices where positive results were achieved except for pH. Luffa cylindrica fibres can be used as effective packing material in a biomass filter for the treatment of paint industry effluent before releasing into the environment based on WHO limits.
Research Article
The Kinetics of the Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Jatropha Oil using Glycerol based Solid Acid Catalyst
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(2), em0116,
ABSTRACT: The studied work presents the kinetics of the esterification of Free Fatty Acids (FFA) in jatropha oil with methanol (Alc) using glycerol based solid acid catalyst (SAC) at varying catalyst mass concentrations from 2.5 to 4.0 %, temperature 50-65 °C that is upto refluxing temperature and atmospheric pressure and Alc-FFA mole ratios ranging from 7.2:1 to 28.8:1 with respect to the FFA present in the oil matrix. The optimized esterification parameters were observed as 3.5% mass concentration of glycerol based SAC with 21.6:1, Alc-FFA mole ratio at temperature of 65 °C for a time period of 4 h which provided a conversion of about 97.03%. Based on the experimental results a second order kinetic model is proposed. The temperature influence on the rate of the reaction, Arrhenius constants and activation energies were evaluated. The reaction heat and energy of activation for the reaction were found to be 10.315 kcal/mol and 11.38 kcal/mol respectively.