2 results found.
Modeling Future Impacts on Land Cover of Rapid Expansion of Hazelnut Orchards: A Case Study on Samsun, Turkey
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(4), em0193, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12167
ABSTRACT: Land-use/land-cover (LULC) simulation models predict the long-term effects of LULC changes under various scenarios. Patch-level land use simulation (PLUS) is a recently developed software that uses a rule-mining framework for LULC modelling. With a market share of 76% in the world, hazelnut is a strategic crop for Turkey. The hazelnut orchards have grown in Turkey since the first law was issued on 21 October 1935. This study was carried out to model the hazelnut orchards for 2030, 2042, 2054, and 2066 based on Samsun province and show the future impacts on land use types. Samsun was chosen as a case study due to the rapid expansion of hazelnut groves since 2006. According to PLUS results, by the year 2030, the increase in the hazelnut groves in Samsun is predicted as 9.38%, and hazelnut fields will be formed by the main transformation of open spaces with little or no vegetation, shrub and/or herbaceous vegetation associations, and forest; and this transformation will have severe effects on the ecosystem. The results clearly showed that hazelnut cultivation areas would continue to increase in the future and revealed that policymakers would need to conduct new regulations for environmental sustainability and to maintain Turkey’s power in this crop.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0137, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8407
ABSTRACT: In the current investigation, a temperature sensitivity analysis of hard and softwood pyrolysis was conducted on an in silico platform. The selected samples were beech (hardwood), ailanthus (soft hardwood) and spruce (softwood). Upon the successful development of the model on ASPEN Plus v8.8, the results of the model prediction showed that the yield of bio-oil reduced with a rise in process temperature. Beech had the highest bio-oil yield of the feedstock investigated. At 350oC, oil yield was 36.72%, 35.13% and 32.89% for beech, ailanthus and spruce respectively. The syn-gas yield was 39.99%, 38.25% and 35.82% and bio-char yield was 45.44%, 47.58% and 50.77% for beech, ailanthus and spruce respectively (at 650oC). For the entirety of the temperature range studied, a gentle fall in char yield was observed for all feedstock type (though more significant at temperatures above 500oC). The model also predicted the yield of volatiles (bio-oil and syn-gas) to be higher for the hard and soft hardwood than for the softwood and this was vice versa for the char yield.