Keyword: COVID-19

5 results found.

Review Article
A Review of the Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Solid Waste Management
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(4), em0196,
ABSTRACT: Pandemics affect the very existence of human life and their effects going beyond human life to the environment. Natural resources within evolving city milieus require sustainable environmental management. In the COVID-19 pandemic, disposal of face masks in rivers have been witnessed illustrating the implications of COVID-19 on solid waste management and ultimately on the environment. The risks associated and enhanced from improper waste management continues to have adverse impact on water bodies like rivers further aggravating the previous conditions of pollution, which contribute to the effects of climate change. Interestingly, COVID-19 pandemic has had positive environmental effects especially during the lockdowns evidenced by reduced travelling hence reduced global carbon dioxide emissions thereby resulting in improved air quality. However, the pandemic has imposed a further strain on the municipal waste system of many developing economies whose waste management structures and frameworks are still straining from doubled waste generation. As part of the COVID-19 protocol, advisory of wearing face masks was made mandatory for prevention purposes. Unfortunately, a constraint exists in developing protocols towards the management of the used face masks, gloves and PPEs. Increased generation of used face masks and gloves further accelerates indiscriminate dumping of these wastes not only in water bodies but also in dumpsites. Burning of these wastes will lead to increased production of greenhouse gases that have been cited as contributing to climate change. Beyond the COVID-19 pandemic, it is advisable for governments in developing countries to treat waste management as an essential service to avoid future foreseeable and unforeseeable adverse impacts on the environment.
Review Article
Investigation of Outdoor/Indoor Air Quality During the Outbreak of COVID-19: A Review Study
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(1), em0180,
ABSTRACT: The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has enormously affected the world and become a worldwide problem. To control the spread of COVID-19, human behaviors are generally controlled in most countries. However, exposure to air pollution causes increased susceptibility to COVID-19. The goal of this review research was to investigate the outdoor/indoor air quality during the outbreak of COVID-19. A review search was carried out from the databases Scopus, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Embase using the key words: “air quality” and “COVID-19 pandemic”. Twenty-four released articles were ultimately identified as eligible candidates for review study. The type of environment, country and city, type of study, goal of study, and study findings were analyzed. The results demonstrated the significant relationship between air pollution (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3) and the COVID-19 event. Indoor pollutant concentrations were typically higher during COVID-19 lockdown. There is also a relationship between meteorological parameters (rainfall, relative humidity, temperature, wind speed, and sunlight) and COVID-19 spread. The air quality index (AQI) of most countries improved to varying grades of quality under the COVID-19 infection control. It is crucial that policy makers and decision makers adopt more valuable methods to assist betterment of air pollution, particularly in developing nations, or control contact with pollutants so as to preserve public wellbeing.
Review Article
Ventilation Systems and COVID-19 Spread: Evidence from a Systematic Review Study
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(2), em0158,
ABSTRACT: The main transmission mechanism of COVID-19 is through close contact, aerosols, droplets, and fomites transmission of the disease in closed spaces. In this study, the importance of ventilation in preventing the expansion of COVID-19 is reviewed. In total, 20 articles are reviewed. The obtained results show that ventilation has a crucial role in preventing COVID-19 expansion in indoor air environments. However, it should be used properly; otherwise, it will cause further expansion of the disease, as suggested for SARS. Appropriate ventilation can effectively prevent the expansion of COVID-19, and it will be more effective if be combined with particle filtration and air disinfection. The benefit of ventilation in highly polluted outdoor air conditions is an important field to be investigated in future studies. Finally, the results show that the six basic COVID-19 control strategies include: hand hygiene, social distancing, screening and case finding, isolation and separating, decontamination and disinfection, and effective ventilation. We hope that the results of the present study help researchers and health decision-makers in designing programs further perceive the importance of factors related to indoor conditions to control COVID-19 expansion.
Research Article
Application of a Generalized SEIR Model for COVID-19 in Algeria
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(1), em0150,
ABSTRACT: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reported in Wuhan is continuing to impress the world by its fast spread and the number of affected persons attracting an unprecedented attention.
In this article, the classical SEIR model and a generalized SEIR model called SEIRDP were applied to predict the evolution of COVID-19 in Algeria for a future period of 100 days using official reported data from early April to early August, 2020. Initial evaluation showed that the two models had a net correspondence with the reported data during this period for cumulative infected cases but the number of cumulative deaths was underestimated with the classical SEIR model. Model prediction with the SEIRDP concluded that the number of cumulative infected cases will increase in the next days reaching a number of about 60 k in middle November with a median of about 300 daily cases. Also, the number of estimated deaths will be around 2k. These results suggest that the COVID-19 is ongoing to infect more persons which may push national authorities to carefully act in the probable leaving of containment.
Research Article
COVID-19 and 20 Resolutions for Bangladesh
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0139,
ABSTRACT: COVID-19 has affected 213 countries around the world, killing more than 484,000 and infecting more than 9.5 million by June 25, 2020 ( Bangladesh, a South Asian low-middle-income economy, has experienced a demographic and epidemiological transition with rapid urbanization and a gradual increase in life expectancy. It is the seventh most populous country in the world and population of the country is expected to be nearly double by 2050. The increasing burden of communicable diseases in Bangladesh can be attributable to rapid urbanization and nearly 50% of all slum dwellers of the country live in Dhaka division. In 2017, National Rapid Response Team of IEDCR investigated 26 incidents of disease outbreak. The joint survey of the Power and Participation Research Centre and BRAC Institute of Governance and Development reveals that per capita daily income of urban slum and rural poor drops by 80% due to present countrywide shutdown enforced by the government to halt the spread of COVID-19. 40%-50% of these population took loans to meet the daily expenses. However, the country has just 127,000 hospital beds, 91,000 of them in government-run hospitals. Researchers say, the country’s economy is losing BDT 33 billion every day from its service and agriculture sectors during the nationwide shutdown.