Volume 4, Issue 3, 2020
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(3), em0119, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7804
ABSTRACT: Since almond seed oil can be used for biodiesel production, this study is aimed at investigating the effect of different blend ratios on the fuel properties of almond biodiesel. The biodiesel was characterized for the properties of flash point, cloud point, pour point, viscosity, saponification value, peroxide value, acid value, iodine value, density and specific gravity using the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometer (GCMS). When blended with petrol diesel at ratios of 20%, 30% and 50%, results showed that the properties of the biodiesel obtained at a blend of 20% had properties more similar to the ASTM standard. At that proportion of 20%, the properties of acid value, viscosity, cloud point, pour point and iodine value were found to be 0.95meq/kg, 8.80Cp, 60C, 10C and 41.62gI2/100g respectively, except the flash point which was 720C at biodiesel blend of 50%. This is because increase in blending ratios was found to result in corresponding increase of the properties.
Production of Biogas from Multiple Feedstocks and its Application as a Fuel for Spark Ignition Engines - A Review
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(3), em0120, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7813
ABSTRACT: The passenger cars run by petrol are mostly used for transportation in India. The increases in fuel demand as the vehicles increases, high fuel cost due to price fixation daily and pollute the environment with their combustion products, engineers concern have to look an alternate fuel for petrol in Spark Ignition (SI) engine. Alternative fuels such as LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas), CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) are used in SI engines are current development. The use of biogas is also a better exchange for LPG and CNG fuel. Because biogas is easily producible, has a high octane number, lower emission level, wider flammability range, lower cost per energy unit of biogas, high self-ignition temperature and it also resists knocking, which is desirable in SI engines. Limited authors have attempted to use biogas as a substitute fuel for petrol in SI engine and dual fuel in Compression Ignition (CI) engine on their experimental studies. This paper reviews those studies and gives an observation for researcher’s to make use of biogas as an alternative fuel for spark-ignition engines efficiently.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(3), em0121, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7830
ABSTRACT: This study is aimed at the modification of sesame seed oil to develop a biobased resin. Neat sesame seed oil was epoxidized via in-situ conventional method with peroxyacetic acid at 75oC. Biobased resins were synthesized by further modifying the epoxidised oil with acrylic and methacrylic acid respectively at 90oC in the presence of hydroquinone. Conversion rate of 76.54% and high oxirane content of 3.83% at a reaction time of 7 hours was achieved for the epoxidation process. FT-IR spectra of the acrylated and methacrylated epoxy resins of sesame seed oil were identified at 2710 and 3002cm-1 respectively. This ascertained the functionalization of the acids used for modification and clearly demonstrates the potential of sesame seed oil for biobased resin synthesis.
Assessment of Ecosystem Services and Capabilities of Communities from different Scales and Niches - Implications on Sustainability Goals
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(3), em0122, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7843
ABSTRACT: Ecosystems are complex compendia of biotic and abiotic components and characterized by exchanges of energy and mass. Via the actions and functions of the resident components which assemble into communities, ecosystems provide both direct/indirect tangible and intangible services to human society as well as the natural world. This holds true for ecosystems which cut across various scales and niches. Various frameworks have been devised to categorize and evaluate the services provided by ecosystems and/or their components. In this study, the services elicited by three specific communities occupying different ecosystem niches and having distinct scalar resolution are assessed. Firstly, the microbial communities which reside in the mammalian gut ecosystem, the microbial communities in the soil and the indigenous/local communities who inhabit the ecosystems comprising their traditional landscapes. Further, the roles and functions of these diverse communities, separated by scale and mostly and largely contributing to the homeostasis and functionality of their corresponding ecosystems, are evaluated. The services rendered by these communities are then mapped to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Finally, the importance of these communities in maximizing social, economic and ecological capital is pointed out.
Critical Pedagogy and Eco-pedagogy: Discussing Ethics and Radical Environmentalism at Business School
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(3), em0123, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7855
ABSTRACT: This article discusses critical pedagogy and ecopedagogy, which stimulate active citizenship through the lessons of environmentalism, exposing students to the critique of the underlying power structures of society. This article discusses business ethics and sustainability undergraduate course, which served as a case study applying critical pedagogy and ecopedogogy. Critical pedagogy, developed by the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire rejects the idea that education is ever politically neutral, arguing that teaching is an inherently political act. Ecopedagogy, taking critical pedagogy further to include current environmental challenges, has inspired this educational intervention described in this article. Asked to watch and reflect on a documentary about radical environmentalism, the students demonstrated a certain shift in their understanding of conventional ethics, enshrined in anthropocentrism. Their reflections showed that they were both surprised and to a degree shocked about not just the actions of the “radicals”, but also the role of the state, supported by corporate and political lobbies in suppressing protest and the framing of the term “radicalism”. The article concludes in the reflection on what radical environmentalism can teach business students in their role as active citizens.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(3), em0124, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7864
ABSTRACT: The biofuel performance certification’s scope is reviewed. An operational definition of biofuel performance certification has been developed. The certification of biofuel performance has been recognized as an effective assessment methodology and tool to manage biofuel consumption and improve biofuel performance systematically. It is found that a biofuel performance certification method is required in biofuel industry and biofuel research to authenticate the biodiesel and its blends for use in diesel engine.
Global Finance, Competitiveness, and Sustainable Development Goals in Emerging and Least Developing Economies (ELDCs): A Review of Literature
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(3), em0125, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7899
ABSTRACT: This paper aims to provide a healthy review of literature on the global imperativeness of the term global finance and competitiveness to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We employed a content analysis method to significantly explore the impact of global finance on financing for sustainable development (FSD) through competitiveness. What are the lessons for ELDCs? From the reviewed literature, we observe that global financing causes a dual impact on competitiveness through the Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) effects. The study found that global FSD on the informal sector, social and environmental factors, as well as human development, is unarguably silent. Also, there is the multiplicity of function in the global financing mix. From the literature reviewed, we observed a positive link between SDGs, global finance, and competitiveness. SDGs differ across countries because the financing approach on competitiveness differs across countries. Thus, to achieve SDGs in ELDCs, global responses should be developed around improving internal and external competitiveness. These two types of competitiveness would be encompassing. Global financing should be directed to exploring economic, social, and environmental quality in internal and external competitiveness in ELDCs. This classification would deepen the World Economic Forum (WEF) GCI 4.0 based on innovative, efficiency and factors element. Thus inclusive growth and sustainable development could be strengthened through the application of internal and external competitiveness policies that would holistically upgrade the industrial and manufacturing competitiveness frontiers and gains from the global market share frontiers to accelerate SDGs in ELDCs.
Slow Catalytic Pyrolysis of Saccharum munja using Bio-genically Synthesized Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticles for the Production of high yield Biofuel
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(3), em0126, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7900
ABSTRACT: In this study, the slow pyrolysis has been performed in a fixed bed reactor using Saccharum munja (munj) as raw biomass material and bio-genically synthesized nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NF-NPs) as a catalyst at an optimum temperature of 450 oC. In the absence of any catalyst, the obtained yield of bio-oil was 43.3 %. The maximum yield of bio-oil (72 %) was obtained with 0.4 g of NF-NPs. With 0.2g of ZSM-5, the obtained bio-oil yield was 44.5 %. The characterization of NF-NPs was studied by using UV-VIS analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The characterization of Bio-char was done by using FT-IR spectroscopy.