Volume 6, Issue 1, 2022
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(1), em0173, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11377
ABSTRACT: Biomass is a source of low-cost adsorbents used in the removal of contaminants. In this study, shells from an indigenous tree in Southern Africa called Morula were pyrolyzed to produce biochar that was used to sequester heavy metals from coal wash water. The produced biochar was activated using hydrochloric acid (HCl) and parameters such as the cation exchange capacity (CEC), point of zero charge (pHzc), elemental composition, mineral composition, proximate analysis and surface functional groups were determined. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out at 150 rpm for 60 min and 25 ºC at different metal ion concentrations and adsorbent dosages. The metal ions of interest were Zn, Ni and Fe and it was found that Fe recorded higher removals for both raw and activated biochar. Generally higher removals were noticed for both raw and activated at lower dosages (0.2 – 1.0 g/100 mL) and lower metal ion concentration (between 40 and 60 ppm) while lower removals were found at higher dosages (1 – 5 g/100 mL) and higher metal ion concentrations (between 400 – 600 ppm).
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(1), em0174, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11397
ABSTRACT: In the present work, economic and environment analyses of multi-generational micro gas turbine systems are reported for a grid-independent dairy farm in Ontario, Canada. Onsite anaerobic digesters utilize farm waste to produce carbon neutral biogas for combustion in the micro gas turbine modules. A range of micro gas turbines coupled with absorption refrigeration units and an organic Rankine cycle are driven by the recovered waste heat to meet the cooling and electrical needs of farm sizes between 250 and 6000 cows. Farms of these sizes are observed to be capable of having their cooling and electricity needs met with micro gas turbines ranging in capacity from 100 to 1000 kW output. Environmental performance is maximized when the net output of the system just matches the energy requirement of the farm, and produces no excess electricity. Thus to minimize the environmental impact, but remain financially viable, various configurations are suggested for farm sizes under 2000 cows.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(1), em0175, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11398
ABSTRACT: Uranium is an element commonly found in natural groundwater can be measured up to 100-500 µg per L without impact from mining. Determination of radionuclide concentrations by dispersion in the surface water is based on several mathematical models. In this paper, the main purpose of this research is to estimate the distribution of radionuclide contamination in the water body under laboratory conditions. The simplest approach in deriving radioactivity dispersion was evaluated by a laboratory-scale glass tank (60 x 60 x 60 cm) which was used for dispersion measurements in the laboratory. The box model transition test has taken into account several parameters; these are mixing ratio, transit time and decay to predict radionuclide concentrations in the water at the location of interest. Radioactive solution (650 Bq/liter) was released in the box and samples were taken from 10 cm intervals every 5 minutes. Results show that radioactivity dispersion can be predicted briefly by using this model for surface waters. Laboratory water tank measurements show that radioactivity dispersion of uranium-bearing solution in surface water compatible with the equation. Measured transition time in the field is the most valuable information that improves the ability to predict the transport and dispersion in surface water.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(1), em0176, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11409
ABSTRACT: One of the main goals of establishing electricity markets is to increase efficiency, and another is to lower the prices of electricity by ensuring competition. Protecting and improving the competitive environment of the market help in achieving these goals. If any of the generation companies in the market can exercise market power, the competition will then decrease and may even disappear. This study offers an optimization model minimizing the market power of all companies. The model can be utilized from the beginning of the liberalization of the electricity sector or during the transformation process from the monopoly to the competitive markets. It is a mixed-integer linear programming model where the bi-level structure of the problem is transformed so that the lower-level and the upper-level are combined in a single level. The lower-level model minimizes investment and production costs of companies. The upper-level maximizes the competition between all companies by minimizing market power. A numerical example is presented and discussed to test the effectiveness of the proposed model and to evaluate the results. Two scenarios are examined in which companies do and do not have budget restrictions. The results show that the model works successfully in both scenarios, and the market power of all companies is decreased so that none can distort competition. However, the second scenario, in which the state-owned company has a budget limit, is more successful in terms of satisfying not only the state and private companies but also consumers. The companies that were small at the beginning have higher shares in the second scenario and the shares of bigger companies are decreased significantly. Also, the second scenario was able to meet the investment needs from a lower level, and investments were shifted to private firms, thus saving investment expenditures of both government and private firms. Furthermore, in both scenarios, prices tend to decrease toward the target year, but the second scenario can keep prices much lower.
Microplastic Polymers in Surface Waters and Sediments in the Creeks Along the Kenya Coast, Western Indian Ocean (WIO)
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(1), em0177, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11433
ABSTRACT: Whereas the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) has been reported to be polluted with microplastics (MPs). Documented information on the specific polymeric composition of these particles in seawater and sediments along the Kenya coast is insufficient. This study assessed the abundance and types of microplastic polymers in the region. Microplastics were sampled from surface water using 500µm neuston nets and from the sediments using a 3.6 cm-diameter corer. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) were used to identify the MPs polymer types. Four polymer types were identified of which, high-density polyethene was the most abundant at 38.3%, followed by polypropylene (34.6%), low-density polyethene (27.1 %), and medium density polyethene (17.1%). The results demonstrate the extent of exposure to microplastics of the region’s ecosystems and provide the impetus for proper policy briefs regarding the management and disposal of plastic waste, protect and save oceans rich in biodiversity for sustainable development.
Investigating the Mixed Effect of Green Marketing on the Decision of Green Buying Consumers (Case Study: Consumers of Mihan Company’s Dairy Products in Arak)
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(1), em0178, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11554
ABSTRACT: Green marketing or the environment includes all activities that produce and facilitate any currency exchanged for the meeting of human needs and wants designed to satisfy these needs and wants with the least harmful impact on the natural environment. The present study aims to examine consumers’ attitudes towards the mix of green marketing and its effect on decision-making. Based on this, a sample consisting of 385 consumers of dairy products of the mentioned company was selected and examined in Arak city by the stratified random method according to the volume of each class. The conceptual model of the research was designed based on the theoretical studies of green marketing and consumer buying, and based on it, a questionnaire was created, and the data were collected. Based on the results, green products did not significantly affect consumer green purchase. On the other hand, the green marketing mix reflects 69% of consumer change in green purchases. Finally, each of the dimensions of advertising (0.49), distribution (0.25), and the price of the market mix Green (0.28) has a positive and significant effect on the green purchase of the consumer. In contrast, the green product has a negative and insignificant impact on the green purchase of consumers.
Assessment of New Sustainable Housing Project in Gdynia Using Justification Tools for Health-Promoting Urban Design and Architecture
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(1), em0179, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11581
ABSTRACT: This paper presents the assessment of Gdynia-Zachód–a new sustainable housing project in Gdynia. This assessment uses a series of justification tools: the universal standard for health-promoting places and the universal standard for eco-neighborhood design. The first tool evaluates the therapeutic qualities of public open green space–public park and walkability of pathways leading to open green space. The second one assesses the basic sustainability standards and lifestyle quality. Gdynia-Zachód is a flagship urban development based on a new urbanism charter. The charette and workshops were organized to invite public participation in this project. The project is still under development, but it was assumed it is a good moment for the assessment to justify future design decisions. This study also demonstrated the practical usage of the universal standards as justification tools.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(1), em0180, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11726
ABSTRACT: The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has enormously affected the world and become a worldwide problem. To control the spread of COVID-19, human behaviors are generally controlled in most countries. However, exposure to air pollution causes increased susceptibility to COVID-19. The goal of this review research was to investigate the outdoor/indoor air quality during the outbreak of COVID-19. A review search was carried out from the databases Scopus, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Embase using the key words: “air quality” and “COVID-19 pandemic”. Twenty-four released articles were ultimately identified as eligible candidates for review study. The type of environment, country and city, type of study, goal of study, and study findings were analyzed. The results demonstrated the significant relationship between air pollution (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3) and the COVID-19 event. Indoor pollutant concentrations were typically higher during COVID-19 lockdown. There is also a relationship between meteorological parameters (rainfall, relative humidity, temperature, wind speed, and sunlight) and COVID-19 spread. The air quality index (AQI) of most countries improved to varying grades of quality under the COVID-19 infection control. It is crucial that policy makers and decision makers adopt more valuable methods to assist betterment of air pollution, particularly in developing nations, or control contact with pollutants so as to preserve public wellbeing.