4 results found.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(2), em0154, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/10812
ABSTRACT: The review paper embodies the current trends and advancements involved in the transformation of biomass to enhanced products, bioenergy, and chemicals. Some selected chemical process like the slow-fast pyrolysis, catalytic fast pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction, transesterification and lignin valorization by depolymerization are aptly suited for biorefinery processing, and were discussed in this review. The (catalytic) fast pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction are quite similar, but differ in their feedstock preparations, reactor configuration and thermal or energy optimization. The review covers the biomass selection, chemical conversion techniques and most importantly the required heterogeneous catalysts (where applicable). The work further suggests the superiority of dedicated chemicals over drop-in and smart drop-in chemicals, due the complete usage of biomass. Relative to the oil refinery process, biorefining is quite novel and accompanied by its drawbacks. These challenges range from catalyst poisoning and deactivation to energy intensiveness and eventually as being cost-ineffective. The challenge encountered in biorefinery is in the economic feasibility, as it is inferred from this review that the pre-treatment process takes up to about 20% of the conversion cost. Although the biorefinery plant employ lignocellulosic biomass, but study shows that the use of biomass is largely under-utilized. The solid products/ wastes from pyrolysis for example, can be utilized as source of energy for the process. In the pursuit for sustainability, it is essential to ensure a balance-energy-mix, where every other type of energy will have a role to play to avoid dependence on only one solution for the future. Therefore, in contrast to the dwindling fossil fuels, it can be generally speculated that the future for biorefining is bright. It was concluded that with vast knowledge on the suitable heterogeneous catalysts and proper optimization of process parameters (temperatures, pressure, and reactant species); some of the biorefining processes will result into a significant increase in industrial fuels and bio-based drop-in chemicals leading towards commercialization.
The Kinetics of the Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Jatropha Oil using Glycerol based Solid Acid Catalyst
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(2), em0116, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7594
ABSTRACT: The studied work presents the kinetics of the esterification of Free Fatty Acids (FFA) in jatropha oil with methanol (Alc) using glycerol based solid acid catalyst (SAC) at varying catalyst mass concentrations from 2.5 to 4.0 %, temperature 50-65 °C that is upto refluxing temperature and atmospheric pressure and Alc-FFA mole ratios ranging from 7.2:1 to 28.8:1 with respect to the FFA present in the oil matrix. The optimized esterification parameters were observed as 3.5% mass concentration of glycerol based SAC with 21.6:1, Alc-FFA mole ratio at temperature of 65 °C for a time period of 4 h which provided a conversion of about 97.03%. Based on the experimental results a second order kinetic model is proposed. The temperature influence on the rate of the reaction, Arrhenius constants and activation energies were evaluated. The reaction heat and energy of activation for the reaction were found to be 10.315 kcal/mol and 11.38 kcal/mol respectively.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(1), em0105, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/6263
ABSTRACT: Production of biodiesel by transesterification method from renewable feedstock has come to stay. Biodiesel usage in internal combustion engines is gradually gaining ground due to its ability to produce less carbon (iv) oxide gas than fossil diesel during combustion. The production of less carbon (iv) oxide fumes will help to reduce environmental pollution that causes climate change. Jatropha curcas seed oil is a viable renewable feedstock for biodiesel production. Transesterification of Jatropha curcas seed oil with methanol using solid calcium oxide as catalyst was carried out. The free fatty acid of the oil used was 1.4%, while the molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature and time were 8:1, 65 °C, and 1hour respectively. The biodiesel produced was analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrophotometer and the methyl ester content was 87.25%. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced in a reaction time of about 1 hour 30 minutes are within the range of the values given by ASTM D6751 standard.
Synthesis of Methyl Esters from Silk Cotton Tree Seed Kernel Oil Using Dimethyl Carbonate and KOH Catalysis
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(2), 20, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/84899
ABSTRACT: Silk cotton seed kernel oil is given as a new source for methyl ester synthesis. Crude silk cotton oil was used as feedstock raw materials for methyl ester production using dimethyl carbonate as solvent and KOH catalysis. The maximum methyl esters yield produced as 97% with a kinematic viscosity (4.25 ± 0.2 5 mm2/sec) was reached at 80 °C by boiling a mixture of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and oil mole ratio as 8:1 with 1.5 wt.% KOH catalyst (oil weight based ) for 75 min. The produced products were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the methyl esters. The properties of the methyl esters from silk cottonseed kernel oil produced met the specifications of ASTM for methyl esters. The kinetics of the KOH-catalyzed transesterification of diglyceride (DG) and triglyceride (TG) with DMC were studied at 40 to 90 °C. We found that the activation energies for transesterification of diglycerides and triglycerides were 89.8 and 83.3 kJ/mol, respectively. The results showed that all the reaction variables studied had beneficial effects.