Volume 2, Issue 4, 2018
Opening the Black Box of Psychological Processes in the Science of Sustainable Development: A New Frontier
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(4), 47, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3933
ABSTRACT: The psychology of sustainability and sustainable development represents a new research area in the field of Sustainability Science. It introduces a psychological perspective and enhances the trans-disciplinary framework that forms the foundation of Sustainability Science. Firmly establishing the psychology of sustainability and sustainable development as a research area means recognizing and integrating the value of psychology and the psychological approach in the construction of processes linked to sustainable development. Enriching sustainable development through opening the black box of psychological processes in support of sustainable development is a new and exciting frontier, that will likely lead to major developments and concrete advances for making development more sustainable in the 21st century and beyond.
Impact of Injection Timing on the Performance of Single Cylinder DI Diesel Engine Fueled with Solid Waste Converted Fuel
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(4), 39, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3914
ABSTRACT: The transfer of waste plastics has turned into an incredible test to the waste management system and because of urbanization and industrialization has prompted consumption of petroleum derivative for energy prerequisite in different areas. The answers for these issues could be overwhelmed by legitimate use of waste plastics as fuel. The paper depicts a correlation of the utilization of pyrolysis oil which is plastic pyrolysis oil (PPO) and diesel in the appraisal of engine execution. Pyrolysis oil is utilized as fuel to check the execution on one-cylinder with water cooled diesel engine. From the investigation, it was found that without engine adjustment, the PPO offers better engine execution with advancement of Injection timing (IT) and could enhance execution by modifying engine.
Towards a Sustainable Electricity Supply in Nigeria: The Role of Decentralized Renewable Energy System
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(4), 40, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3908
ABSTRACT: In Nigeria, access to reliable and stable supply of electricity is a major challenge for both the urban and rural dwellers. In this study, comprehensive review of accessibility to clean and modern energy in Nigeria has been carried out. Also, this paper examines the potential of renewable energy (RE) resources in Nigeria that can be harnessed for continuous energy supply and the government’s efforts to ensure RE‘s sustainability. Nigeria is endowed with abundant energy resources but the existing electric energy infrastructures are unable to meet the energy demands of teeming population. There is imbalance in energy supply and demand in the country. Over the period from 2000 to 2014, there was an average of about 2.35 billion kWh of energy gap between energy production and energy consumption. The highest electricity consumption per capita recorded so far was 156 kWh in 2012. This makes Nigeria one of the country with the lowest electricity consumption on per capita basis in the world. In order to improve access to clean energy supply and achieve sustainable development, this paper pin points the significance of decentralized renewable energy systems and needs for the government to review the policies on renewable energy development in the country.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(4), 41, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3909
ABSTRACT: Sustainable Development (SD) is essential for modern economy. Sustainable Development Engineering (SDE) is a subsystem of SD and concentrates on the engineering sides of SD. Environmental Engineering (EE) is also essential for clean modern industry. EE is necessary for SD but is not sufficient, in order to make it sufficient the feedstock must be from Renewable Raw Materials (RRMs) sources. SD is formed of the sub-systems SDE, EE and RRMs. In this paper membrane catalytic reactors are used to achieve Maximum Production and Minimum Pollution (MPMP) by removing hydrogen from dehydrogenation side. The efficiency increases when a hydrogenation reaction is taking place in the other side of the membrane. This paper is addressing a practical case for this behavior giving MPMP which is necessary but not sufficient for sustainability. The further step to make it sufficient is the use of feedstock from RRMs which is not addressed in the paper. It is shown that the counter-current process is more efficient than the co-current one. This investigation and conclusions are obtained by reliable mathematical modeling, numerical solution and computer simulation of the model differential equations. More difficult ones for the Countercurrent case.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(4), 42, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3910
ABSTRACT: Buildings are responsible for significant natural resource consumption, waste generation, and environmental pollution. Building impacts are generally assessed through life cycle analysis (LCA). This study integrates LCA with the Ecological Footprint indicator for the assessment of a building's impact on the planet. In order to determine ecological impact of a building, a methodology has been established for estimation of Life Cycle Ecological Footprint (LCEFtotal) of the building, as well as to assess its impact due to resource consumption (energy, water, building materials, manpower etc.) and waste assimilation over the lifecycle. For an academic building located in India taken as a case study, the LCEFtotal is found to be 4397.03 gha and the LCEFtotal per unit floor area is 0.60 gha/m2. The average annual Ecological Footprint (EFavg) of the academic building is 73.28 gha/yr that is approximately 20 times more than the actual physical land of the campus. The average annual Ecological Footprint per student (EFavg/student) of the academic building is 0.045 gha/yr/student. If annual grid electricity consumption of the building is replaced by the grid-connected rooftop photovoltaic (GRSPV) system in the ratios of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25%, it can reduce up to 61%, 54%, 31%, and 15% of the total LCEFtotal of the academic building, respectively.
A New Lipid Rich Microalgal SP Scenedesmus Dimorphus Isolated: Nile Red Staining and Effect of Carbon, Nitrogen Sources on its Physio-Biochemical Components
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(4), 43, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3911
ABSTRACT: Currently, majority of the researchers concentrate on algal biomass production with autotrophic cultivation, however this cultivation strategy induces low biomass yield and it is troublesome to be utilized in large-scale algal biomass production. In contrary to this, heterotrophic algae can accumulate high level lipid production. Therefore, the present study was aimed to assess the effect of various carbon sources viz., glucose, sucrose, fructose, glycerol, sodium acetate and various nitrogen sources viz., NaNO3, urea, KNO3, NH4NO3, yeast extract, peptone, beef extract on lipid, biomass, total chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrate content in Scenedesmsus dimorphus. Among carbon sources, glucose showed maximum biomass yield (1.98±0.005gL-1) and highest lipid content (32.7±0.01%) followed by fructose, sucrose and glycerol. Similarly, total carbohydrates and protein content was also found to be maximum in glucose 0.275±0.002 mgmL-1 and 0.031±0.001 mgmL-1 respectively. While sodium nitrate supported maximum chlorophyll content (29.00±0.01 µgmL-1). Among various tested nitrogen sources, beef extract showed highest lipid production (30.28±0.05%), biomass yield (1.73±0.02 gL-1) in sodium nitrate and total carbohydrates (0.247±0.008) mgmL-1 in beef extract, followed by yeast extract and peptone. Highest chlorophyll content has been found in urea and maximum protein content in ammonium nitrate.
Levels and Risk Assessment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS) in Soils from Informal E-Waste Recycling Sites in Cameroun
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(4), 44, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3912
ABSTRACT: This study assessed the levels and human health risk of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils of e-waste recycling sites in Douala, Cameroun. Surface soil samples from these sites were collected and analyzed by Gas Chromatography- Electron Capture Detector to quantify the levels of 30 PCBs (including 10 dioxin-like PCBs). The investigated 30 PCBs were detected in all the soil samples. The mean and standard deviation of the total PCBs in Makea, Ngodi and New Bell recycling sites were 32.1±4.48, 31.9±0.10 and 72.8±13.5 ng/g, respectively. Between 26-46% of the Ʃ30 PCB concentrations were comprised of the dioxin-like PCB congeners. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) values of 10 dioxin-like PCBs were lower than the Canadian soil quality guidelines of dioxin (4 pg TEQ g−1). Human health risk through ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation was lower than the values of cancer risk (10−6) indicating low adverse effects of PCBs in the recycling sites.
Experimental Investigations on Manifold Injection of Diesel and Biodiesel in a HCCI Engine with Inlet Charge Heating
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(4), 45, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3913
ABSTRACT: In the present study, engine tests were conducted on a modified single cylinder four stroke compression ignition (CI) engine operated in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode with injection of diesel and biodiesels through intake manifold. The intake air temperature varied from 50 to 80 °C for diesel and 55 to 85 °C for biodiesel using air pre heater. The coolant temperature varied from 40 to 60 °C for both the diesel and biodiesel operation. For the comparison purpose, CI engine fuelled with diesel was operated at the injection timing of 23°BTDC and an injector pressure of 205 bar. It is seen that HCCI mode of engine operation with diesel and biodiesel resulted into 35-45% lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE) with significant reduction in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission by 98% and smoke emissions by 65-75%. On the other hand, HCCI engine operation with diesel and biodiesels showed increased hydrocarbon (HC) emissions by 20-25 times and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 30-40%. However, peak pressure (PP) and heat release rate (HRR) decreased by 20-25% when compared to CI mode of engine operation.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(4), 46, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3916
ABSTRACT: Stories, in one form or another, are probably as old as the human race, but in recent years, businesses have increasingly come to recognise the importance of storytelling. The aim of this paper is to offer an exploratory commentary on how storytelling is employed in the corporate social responsibility reporting process by the leading UK retailers. The paper begins with an outline of the characteristics of storytelling within the corporate world, and then reviews the ways storytelling is employed by the UK’s top ten retailers’ as part of their corporate social responsibility reporting processes. The paper identifies a number of storytelling formats, including photographs and images, video clips, messages and cameo case studies, used by the selected UK retailers, and offers some reflections on their current approaches to storytelling. While the stories employed by the selected retailers often have a strong human impact and can strike emotive chords, the authors would argue that stories can, at least partly, be misleading in that they do not necessarily fully reflect a retailer’s corporate social responsibility record.