Volume 2, Issue 3, 2018
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 27, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/85934
ABSTRACT: Economic load dispatch (ELD) is a complicated issue, when renewable energy sources are also considered with thermal power generation systems. It becomes challenging and difficult to find the optimum solution at lower fuel costs, in order for generated power to meet the active power load demand. This paper primarily focuses on the modeling of ELD for solar power plants synchronized with Thermal power plants. In this paper, the purposed optimization method used is Genetic algorithm (GA). According to which, all thermal generators in the system will supply output power at lowest fuel rate however satisfying the system limitations. Minimum fuel cost of a generator will be calculated by using generator characteristic curve for all generators present in the system. With the help of GA, achievable range for best solution is attained while restricting the output power of thermal generators. Proposed system priority to achieve is solar at first and generators on second such that generator or combination of generators resulting in lowest cost will be on second priority. Simulations on various test systems were performed including one with six thermal generators and the other with six thermal generators and solar power system. By using MATLAB the proposed problem is simulated.
Relationship between Family Functioning and Environmental Attitudes on the Environmental Behaviours of Students in a Federal University in Edo State, Nigeria
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 28, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/87022
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between family functioning and environmental attitudes toward the student’s environmental behaviours. This study was done in view of guiding both stakeholders and parents including school administrators on proper tips for boosting student behaviours towards the environment in order to build a more friendly and sustainable environment in Edo State and Nigeria as a nation. A correlational study was embarked on. The population and sample of the study consisted of all full time (200Level to 400Level) environmental education students in University of Benin, Nigeria. Thus one hundred and two students constituted the sample for the study. Hence a census sampling technique was utilized in the study. Family functioning was seen to have a stronger influence on the environmental behaviour of the students than their environmental attitude showed to the environment. Meanwhile the combination of family functioning and environmental attitude are seen to have a significant influence on the environmental behaviours of the students.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 29, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/85933
ABSTRACT: Textile wastewater contains large quantities of organic and inorganic compounds, which cause toxic and hazardous pollutants in the environment. Efficacy, efficiency and feasibility of the biological treatment method using macrophytes and algae were investigated, and various physicochemical parameters (TSS, TDS, pH, color, EC, DO, BOD, COD and metal concentration) were also analyzed. In pre-treated sample, TSS, TDS, pH, temperature, DO, BOD, COD, EC and color were recorded as 913 mg/L, 2250 mg/L, 9.4, 41°C, 2.84 mg/L, 358 mg/L, 721 mg/L, 1555 μS/cm and 1347 TCU respectively. As, Cr, Pb and Cu (heavy metals) were observed exceeding the limit stipulated by WHO. COD and the pH reduction was effective in biological treatment with aquatic plants, algae and their combination, but not significant for color removal. Eichhornia treatment found most effective in reducing BOD, COD, TDS and TSS. Mixed treatment reduced the pH from 9.4 to 7.5. Both macrophytes and algae exhibited appreciable heavy metal uptake tendency, but Eichhornia crassipes was identified as the most effective in heavy metal removal because of its extensive root system. An Eichhornia based adsorbent was prepared for removal of color from the wastewater and found to be capable of removing 58% of the color. The investigation erected pathway towards phytoremediation of polluted surface water in lakes and rivers, too.
Effects of Using Diesel Particulate Filter and Diesel Oxidation Catalyst with Exhaust Gas Recirculation on the Performance of Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with Diesel- Di Ethyl Ether Blend
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 30, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/87153
ABSTRACT: In the present work, a single cylinder diesel engine was suitably modified to operate on diesel, diesel and diethyl ether (DEE) in blended form in which percentage of diethyl ether in diesel blends was varied from 5 to 20% in steps of 5%. Further the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the performance of diesel engine fueled with alcohol and diesel blended fuels were studied. The pre-and post-combustion methods were adopted to study the performance of the modified diesel engine. Post combustion analysis involved use of emission control devices like Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) combination for effective control of unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC) and particulate matter (PM) respectively. From the study it was observed that the engine was consistent in its operation throughout the experimental investigations when operated on selected fuel combinations. Based on the comprehensive experimental investigations carried out the following conclusions have been derived. The brake thermal efficiency (BTE) increased with increased injection of DEE and highest BTE was found to be 29.25% for 80% loading condition using 20% DEE and without EGR. In-cylinder pressure and heat release profiles showed delayed combustion for DEE blends compared to diesel and the same was more pronounced with higher DEE blends. Shorter combustion duration was observed with DEE compared to diesel. Increased smoke and UBHC emissions were observed for increased EGR induction for all operating conditions while the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission decreased. For 20% DEE fuel operation adopted along with DPF, smoke emissions reduced by 75%. It is observed that, adopting DPF, NOx emission reduced by 10%; while adopting DOC, NOx emission reduced by 6%. At 80% load optimum conditions for the modified diesel engine operation with selected fuel combinations were observed for 20% diethyl ether/diesel ratio, and 20% exhaust gas recirculation rate along with both DOF and DOC respectively.
Analytical Review on the Trends and Present Situation of Large-scale Sustainable Energy Storage Technology
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 31, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/86200
ABSTRACT: Energy storage technology is to achieve large-scale access to renewable energy sources; the key technology for improving efficiency, safety and economy of power systems is also to increase the ratio of clean energy to power generation, and effective means of promoting haze governance. By the end of 2015, the total installed capacity of the global energy storage equipment was about 167 GW, about 2.9% of the world's total installed power; the energy storage equipment in China is 22.8 GW, about 1.7% of the total installed power of the country. By 2050, China's energy storage equipment will reach 200 GW; the market size will reach more than 2 trillion RMB. The existing energy storage technologies include pumped storage, compressed air energy storage, flywheel energy storage, superconducting storage, lead-acid batteries, lithium batteries, sodium sulfur batteries, liquid flow batteries and super capacitors. Different energy storage technologies are applicable to different applications and fields, depending on system power and discharge time, the main application areas of energy storage technology can be divided into three parts: energy management, power bridging and power quality management. Future energy storage market development will focus on distributed energy storage, distributed photovoltaic PV + energy storage, Micro grid, distribution network side and user side and other fields. In recent years, China's energy storage industry has accelerated the pace of development in terms of project planning, policy support and capacity layout, in the next few years, with the rapid development of renewable energy industry, the energy storage market will also enjoy rapid growth. However, the energy storage industry in this country is still in the initial stage of development, and it is mainly based on demonstration and application, the commercial application of energy storage faces the high cost of storage and the imperfect market of power exchange. Energy storage technology route is not mature, lack of energy storage, effective price and effective incentives are both opportunities and challenges.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 32, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/89694
ABSTRACT: The growing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions at the international level have shifted American and European policies to invest in sustainable mobility. Although substantial steps have been made in recent years, electric mobility is still not an integral part of today’s transport systems. The aim of the study is to provide a comparative overview of the Italian approach to electric mobility and to define future approaches that could be used. Our research used a web-based survey, applying standard statistical methods to data processing. From these results we defined the playing field of the current results, and the variables for the future development of electric urban mobility. This analysis has shown a gap in the knowledge of the results reached in recent years by consumers and displayed an interest in new types of ecological fuels. Regarding Italian policies, it is clear that major efforts in economic and infrastructural facilitations are needed. In addition, this analysis can be used in the future to check for any developments and to generate a larger dataset with other partners.
Natural Convection of Third Grade Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in a Changeable Semi-permeable Medium Considering the Effects of Variable Heat Source and Magnetic Field
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 33, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/2665
ABSTRACT: The main purpose of this paper is to conduct momentum and energy analysis on non-Newtonian fluid flow in a semi-permeable medium between two infinite vertical flat plates considering the influences of medium porosity, heat source and magnetic field. In this study, porosity, heat source and magnetic field terms are considered to be variable. Initially, partial differential equations of momentum and energy are derived and turned into ordinary differential equations utilizing a similarity solution. Afterwards, a system of differential equations is solved by Least Square Method (LSM) and subsequently reliable functions are proposed for temperature and velocity distributions. To assess the precision of this method, the equations are also solved by a numerical method and an analytical approach known as Galerkin Method (GM). Regarding the comparisons, it can be implied that when the values of magnetic field, heat source and porosity are constant along the channel width, both LSM and GM methods are efficient and appropriate agreement is observed between the results. However, for the case in which these parameters linearly vary along the channel width, Galerkin approach shows more accurate results. Ultimately, the influences of Hartman number, porosity and heat source parameters on the velocity and temperature distributions are discussed.
Land Value Capture and Tax Increment Financing: Overview and Considerations for Sustainable Urban Investment
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 34, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/2666
ABSTRACT: The paper reviews the notion of Land Value Capture (LVC), its advantages and disadvantages and relevance to for urban growth management. LVC encompasses a wide range of mechanisms, applied in very diverse contexts to monetize ‘windfall’ gains, accruing to landowners because of growth, infrastructure or place-making projects. Despite widespread conviction that a proportion of these ‘unearned increments’ should somehow be harvested for the wider public good, contention, legal and pragmatic challenges remain. As policy makers confront population pressures, transport needs and inequality, LVC can help bridge infrastructure funding gaps, accelerate housing provision and temper polarisation. Betterment taxes, Tax Increment Finance (TIF) or participatory instruments like land readjustment can target ‘planning gains’ capitalized into land and property values near stations, historic monuments or upgraded precincts. As well as flagging instrument diversity and variable contexts, the literature suggests LVC mechanisms work best in a joined-up policy context. Ironically, spatial LVC schemes like TIF are most likely to fail when the regeneration need is most acute. In America, inadequate governance, scrutiny or auditing undermined schemes to fund transport or improve the public realm. In Europe LVC exists in a variety of modalities but three European examples, suggests it remains underutilized. London megaprojects, UK regional housing schemes and French sprawl, illustrate that policy makers have yet to adequately capture unearned increments.
Effect of Combustion Chamber Shapes, Nozzle Holes Geometries, Injection Pressures and Injection Timing on the Performance Diesel Engine Fueled with Palm Oil Methyl Ester
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 35, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/2667
ABSTRACT: This experimental study mainly focused on investigation of the performance of diesel engine using palm oil methyl ester (POME). The engine operating conditions such as optimized IT of 27°BTDC and varied IOP with nozzle geometry and combustion chamber shapes were investigated. The better operating conditions of combustion chamber shape and nozzle geometry were reported. The operating conditions of the engine were maintained 1500 rpm and CR of 17.5. For diesel engine operation with POME, it could be revealed that IT of 27°BTDC, IOP of 240 bar, 5 holes nozzle geometry with Torroidal Re-entrant combustion chamber (TRCC) gives more improvement in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) with minimum emissions.
Medical Waste Management is Vital for Safe Town Development: An Incident Study in Jessore Town, Bangladesh
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 36, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/2668
ABSTRACT: Health care institutions (HCIs) generate waste which can causes various injuries and infections to the patients, healthcare workers and also causes harm to the surrounding environment. Medical waste management (MWM) is vital for safe town development and the misconduct of medical waste may be a significant risk factor for the infectious diseases diffusion on our environment. The study carried out on 22 HCIs included public hospital, diagnostic centers, private hospitals and clinic in Jessore town of Bangladesh. This present study focused on the existing management structure, generation rate and difficulties of MWM. An inadequate number of HCIs are following the MWM method over their self-management. The findings of this study exposed that around 3 ton of medical waste is produced per day that is about 5.56% of entire waste production in this town. Over on an ordinary 0.98kg/day/bed medical waste that covering 10.89% infectious, 15.82% plastic, 3.46% sharp, 3.87% pathological, 60.94% domestic and 5.52% pharmaceutical waste were generated in this town.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 37, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/2669
ABSTRACT: Exergy analyses of multi-generational micro gas turbine systems are reported for a grid-independent dairy farm in Ontario, Canada, with an aim of being environmentally benign. Onsite anaerobic digesters utilize farm waste to produce carbon neutral biogas for combustion in the micro gas turbine modules. A range of micro gas turbines coupled with absorption refrigeration units and an organic Rankine cycle are driven by the recovered waste heat to meet the cooling and electrical needs of farm sizes between 250 and 6000 cows. Exergy balances are applied to each component as well the overall system configuration, and exergy efficiencies are obtained. Small farm sizes with one absorption cooling unit are found to be more exergy efficient than large farm sizes with more than one absorption cooling unit, but the difference is less than 0.5%. Most of exergy destruction within the micro gas turbine module occurs in the combustion chamber, which contributes 79% of the exergy destruction of the system. Farm sizes between 250 and 6000 cows are observed to be capable of having their cooling and electricity needs met with micro gas turbines ranging in capacity from 100 to 1000 kW output, while exhibiting similar exergy efficiencies.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 38, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/2670
ABSTRACT: Today we are facing environmental hitches such as deforestation and global warming, due to which atmospheric CO2 level has increased by 25% since 1850. It is human activities that have created these problems; hence, the resolutions to these encounters lie in behavioral change. Thus, it is only by empowering people that the environment can be protected. This study aims to explore reduction of printing at elementary schools by enhancing pro-environmental printing behavior. Literature review is presented in the following themes – demographic, impact of printing on the environment and pro-environmental printing behavior. An observation method is applied in this study and data is obtained from 108 teachers from seven elementary schools at three different regions in Northwest Friesland, The Netherlands by using digital print data and printers’ observation. The main findings illustrate that pro-environmental behaviour has a positive effect on the printing behavior. This research reveals that the experimental group printed 45% to 51% less during intervention. Therefore by extending pro environmental behaviour, financial and environmental costs can be minimized. This reading recommends directors of the schools to enhance pro-environmental printing behaviour among teachers to reduce both financial and environmental costs measured as use of paper.