Volume 4, Issue 1, 2020
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(1), em0104, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/6260
ABSTRACT: Dengue Protection and Cure: Bangladesh Perspective
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(1), em0105, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/6263
ABSTRACT: Production of biodiesel by transesterification method from renewable feedstock has come to stay. Biodiesel usage in internal combustion engines is gradually gaining ground due to its ability to produce less carbon (iv) oxide gas than fossil diesel during combustion. The production of less carbon (iv) oxide fumes will help to reduce environmental pollution that causes climate change. Jatropha curcas seed oil is a viable renewable feedstock for biodiesel production. Transesterification of Jatropha curcas seed oil with methanol using solid calcium oxide as catalyst was carried out. The free fatty acid of the oil used was 1.4%, while the molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature and time were 8:1, 65 °C, and 1hour respectively. The biodiesel produced was analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrophotometer and the methyl ester content was 87.25%. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced in a reaction time of about 1 hour 30 minutes are within the range of the values given by ASTM D6751 standard.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(1), em0106, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/6264
ABSTRACT: An experimental setup is constructed to harvest energy from wind by means of oscillating of a body, structure or even trees. A vertical stem which can oscillate or bend is connected with a rack and pinion and finally pinion is connected with generator to harvest the electrical energy. Once the force is applied on the top of the stem, the connecting wire pulls the rack and pinion is in rotary motion and generates the power. The experiments are carried out for both applied static force and wind assist dynamic force. The experimental results show that the forces exerted on the stem are very much influenced by the stem height, the rack length for power generation. The results from wind assist experiments reveals that the sail size and the materials of both stem and sails play vital role on power generation. The constructed setup shows a good prospect on power generation from wind specially the places like highways, urban areas or any other places where the tree or any other object or structure oscillate.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(1), em0107, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/6295
ABSTRACT: A teaching module recently developed by the authors for engineers on robotic safety using various approaches (Powerpoint presentation and written document) is described and an assessment of the effectiveness of using the module is presented. The effectiveness of the teaching module and its different approaches is assessed by using it in a class setting, and surveying the opinions of the students. The content delivery approaches and learning approaches are also assessed, based on student opinions. The teaching module is determined to be effective at promoting student learning on robotics safety, and to offer multiple useful delivery modes. The teaching module thus allows students with different learning preferences to exploit the delivery mode the find most suitable.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(1), em0108, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/6296
ABSTRACT: The high demand for land provides land speculators the opportunity to hold land in anticipation of a price increase over time. Although the objective of the 1993 Land Use Statement was to test extra land speculation, the announcement has only been successful in fueling it. This study examines the role of land speculators around the outer edge of Shashemene’s metropolitan area. Primary data for this study was collected through a questionnaire with 73 respondents who were sampled using snowball sampling techniques. The chief findings of this study reveal that land speculation is still practiced in the study area, and the respondents affirmed that land speculators engaged in land speculation mostly for economic benefits.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(1), em0109, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/6342
ABSTRACT: The article provides information on transportation of health-hazardous waste. Transport accidents of hazardous waste are frequent and can cause serious injuries in inhabited areas or pollution to the environment. It is very important to distinguish such waste from the general waste stream and correctly transport and handle it. For qualitative risk assessment and mitigation planning, consequence calculations are necessary. Transportation of the hazardous waste has a major impact on road traffic and safety. Therefore, it is very important to define all elements of the safe system and apply the concept of “green logistics”. The aim of this article is to analyse the peculiarities of health hazards, its transportation characteristics and suggest an algorithm for determining the consignment volume and selecting transportation method in order to prevent damage to the environment and humans and minimize the risks. The scope of article is safe and sustainable transportation of hazardous waste. The article reports the results of the methodology to determine an optimal consignment volume and transportation methods, where the optimality criteria is the general storage and transportation costs is suggested. The algorithm enables to optimally determine an average number of vehicles in accordance with the tonnage of hazardous waste.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(1), em0110, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/6343
ABSTRACT: Sawdust in Ethiopia, despite of its abundance, is not being properly utilized. Pre-treatment has been found to be crucial step before enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic resources to obtain sugars from such resources. Various pre-treatment methods have been developed to facilitate these bio-conversion processes. This research was aimed at investigating the effects of the combined pretreatments of steam and mild NaOH with white rot fungi (WRF) on sawdust samples from Eucalyptus globulus and Cupressus lusitanica were investigated. The amounts of losses of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose contents of the pretreated sawdust samples were measured. Samples of the pretreated sawdust samples were then subjected to the enzymes from the hydrolytic wood rot fungi for hydrolysis into fermentable sugars. It was observed that lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose losses of the two sawdust types increased with the increasing incubation days but lignin and hemicellulose were preferentially degraded than cellulose. Sugar yield obtained from the sawdust pretreated in the combination of NaOH with WRF and steam with WRF was significantly higher compared to the yield obtained from the NaOH and steam alone pretreated sawdust samples. Pretreatment by the combination of NaOH with the wood rot fungi significantly modified the recalcitrance nature of the sawdust samples than when steam combined with the fungi. Similarly, with increasing enzymatic hydrolysis periods, sugar yields significantly increased. Higher sugar yields were obtained from sawdust samples of E. globulus than C. lusitanica. The ligninolytic and cellulolytic fungi tested resulted in a notable sugar yields indicating the possible application of the wood rot fungi in sugar production from lignocellulosic sawdust wastes which could be used for different industrial applications.
Fossil Fuel Substitution with Renewables for Electricity Generation – Effects on Sustainability Goals
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(1), em0111, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/6344
ABSTRACT: The substitution of fossil fuel power plants with renewable units will lead to a profound reduction of CO2 emissions and will assist in evading the Global Climate Change. Using demand data from the electricity grid of Texas, this paper develops a scenario for the substitution of coal, at first, and of all fossil fuel power plants, secondly, in the entire State of Texas. Meeting the electricity demand of the grid with renewables, makes it necessary to develop significant energy storage capacity in addition to the renewable – wind and solar – installations. Because of the lower pant capacity factors of wind and solar units, the calculations show that significantly higher renewable power capacity must be built than the current capacity of the fossil fuel units to be substituted. Also, that a substantial fraction of the generated energy is lost in the storage-recovery processes. All these factors are expected to increase the price of electricity paid by the consumers. Ahis will have an impact on the less affluent segments of the population and – if ignored by national energy policies – will affect the goal to reduce inequality within and among countries.