Volume 5, Issue 3, 2021

Technical Note
Towards Valorization of Baobab for the Production of Biofuels
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0159,
ABSTRACT: Baobab (Adansonia digitata) is a promising bio-resource distributed across Africa. A variety of biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, bio-oil and biogas can be prepared from feedstock derived from baobab. In this vein, different parts of baobab plant, for instance oil, fruit shells, and seed cakes can be utilized for biofuel synthesis. In this study, novozyme-435 (CAL-B) was used as a biocatalyst for biodiesel production. Oil to biodiesel conversion of 91.8±2.6% was obtained within 6 h reaction time at 50 °C when the molar ratio of oil to methanol was maintained at 1: 3. Biocatalysts are non-toxic and biodegradable, therefore sustainable for the process. The results showed potential use of baobab oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production.
Research Article
Environmental Impact of Fresh Vegetables Supply: A Case-Study in Teresina, Brazil
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0160,
ABSTRACT: The current study presents an estimated environmental impact of CO2 emissions in the cargo transport process in the road modal, as part of the logistics chain for the distribution of horticultural items, highlighting the production of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), peppers (Capsicum annuum) and cucumbers (Cucumis sativus), from production centers in several Brazilian states to a food distribution center in Teresina, Northeast Brazil. In the next step, we added fresh vegetables purchased by an urban hospital at the distribution center to analyze the city’s food distribution system’s environmental impact. The data used were obtained at the distribution center Nova Ceasa and at an urban hospital to complete the last stage of the food distribution, corresponding to 2019. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) impact values correlated with horticulture production were recovered from the literature related to open-field vegetable crops under similar agricultural conditions. We computed the quantity of vegetables produced on-field, the distances traveled, the on-road transportation fuel, and the environmental impact using the GWP calculator. The study found a wide range of GWP values. From the studies and analyzes, the results indicated that the impact of GWP is greater in the production phase in the field, followed by urban transport except for fresh tomatoes. The tomato results showed greater environmental impact in the transport of more distant products and smaller quantities. Results suggest that crop production and the long traveled distances are the main factors in the environmental impact. We also concluded that the greater the amount of product transported in a trip, the lower the environmental impact.
Review Article
Advancing Water Conservation in Cooling Towers through Energy-Water Nexus
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0161,
ABSTRACT: Life without water is not possible on the earth, while modern humans need water not only for drinking, sanitization, and agriculture but also for industrial activities including electricity and cooling generations. Hence, emphasis on water sustainability through different sectors including thermoelectric and cooling plants is an intelligent strategy while the tight connections of water and energy guide study towards energy-water nexus investigations. Cooling towers are equipment for dissipating the excess heat by water evaporation or they hidden gates for wasting water. The objective of the present study is to elaborate on the role of cooling towers in improving environment sustainability by presenting various methods of energy and water modeling, categorizing various methods for modifying water and energy consumptions through past studies and mapping future studies. regarding cooling towers. Presenting a history of energy-water modeling methods of cooling towers, the Markel, the Poppe, and the effectiveness– Number of Transfer Unit (NTU) models, has followed by assessing the environmental impact of cooling towers in the form of excess water consumption, plume, and energy usage. Summarizing and organizing the past efforts for upgrading water management in cooling towers have been in two directions either providing more water supply, or modifications of the cooling tower to use less water. Then the different methodologies for each direction are introduced for further elaborations. This study’s practical outcome is proposing the methods of improving water sustainability for any cooling towers from past studies to assist engineers in the industry in modifying cooling towers water consumption. Showing the roadmap for the planning future investigations on the cooling towers based on the past efforts is another outcome of the present study to provide an insight for academia with research interest on cooling towers.
Research Article
Ferritin and Free Radicals Species in Seeds by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0162,
ABSTRACT: Biodiesel is a relevant source of renewable energy which has received a lot of attention due to the need to create a renewable fuel matrix. An important source of raw material for the biodiesel production is oilseeds. Considering the lack of studies characterizing magnetic species present in seeds, different types of oilseed samples were characterized and compared using X-band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy, at room temperature and 30 K. It was identified the presence of the semiquinone radical in all seed’s samples. Besides the free radical resonance, the presence of ferritin was observed, that is an important Fe complex present in seeds and plants, which, although very studied, still lacks a precise description related with its storage and other processes. This study can potentially assist future research about biodiesel and other products that have seeds as raw material.
Research Article
A Comprehensive Review and the Efficiency Analysis of Horizontal and Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0163,
ABSTRACT: The Wind has the potential as an alternative source of renewable energy. Natural wind from the earth’s atmosphere is captured before converted into mechanical energy and then electrical energy. This paper presents a comparison of the efficiency of the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT). The efficiency is determined using SOLIDWORKS Flow Simulation considering the wind scenario, a constant wind speed of 5 km/h with constant wind direction. It has been found that the drag coeffiecient of HAWT, VAWT–Savonius and VAWT– Darrieus are 0.5175, 0.2605 and 13.5622 respectively. This paper also proposes building a wind farm in Seamatan where the average wind speed is highest in Sarawak, Malaysia ranging from 4 km/h to 9 km/h.
Review Article
Trends in Sonochemical and Hydrodynamic Reactor Strategies for Catalytic Production of Biodiesel: Effects of the Influencing Process Parameters and Kinetics
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0164,
ABSTRACT: Biodiesel researchers need to understand the optimal conditions involved in the production of biodiesel from readily available biological sources, as several research works have reported on biodiesel production. Therefore, this paper emphasizes specifically, the process parameters involved in biodiesel production and how they affect biodiesel yields. These parameters include, but not limited to the feedstock selection, catalyst type to use, free fatty acid, temperature, kinetics, hydrodynamics and reactor conditions. In biodiesel synthesis, a high fatty acid methyl ester yield of up to 100%w/w at 60 oC has been reported, which occurred with a methanol to oil molar ratio of 3.75, and 60 min reaction time. Homogeneous catalysts seems promising for the production of biodiesel, although they possess disposal challenges and reusability issues. In addition, carbon-based catalysts from natural sources have been used to resolve the presence of free fatty acids in biodiesel synthesis that results in the formation of soap. These carbon-derived catalysts prove their efficiency when modified with acids. The reactor suitable for biodiesel reaction, assume several configurations, like the batch, fixed bed and semi-batch configurations, with their respective reaction conditions. Furthermore, in the design of a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor operating on the rotor-stator mechanism, research has shown that the ratio of rotor to stator diameter Dr/Ds is maintained at 0.73 for efficient operation. Hence, a proper understanding of the process chemistry and techniques involved in biodiesel synthesis would ensure a high desired yield and sustainable process route.
Research Article
The External Cost of Electricity Generation: An Applicable Approach for Environmental Decision-Making on Electricity Exportation Strategy
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0165,
ABSTRACT: The Burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, fuel oil, natural gas, and diesel in power sector, has become one of the major sources of air pollutants, namely COX, NOX and SOX. These are thought to adversely affect the environment and human health. This paper assesses the external cost of electricity production from fossil fuel power plants in Iran using the Extern-E study. In addition, the future of average amount of emissions and their external cost was predicted according to the development of Iran’s power generation system. Investigation of power generation planning in Iran from 2013 to 2023 shows that the average emissions of PM10, SO2, CO, and CO2 will reduce by 26.7%, 54.2%, 65.4%, and 20%, respectively, in fossil power plants. Moreover, it was predicted that the average external cost of power generation in 2023 would decrease up to 28.9%, 27.6%, and 23.1% in low, medium, and high scenarios, respectively. Moreover, analyzing the trend of Iran’s electricity exportation and considering the prospect of Iran’s energy sector, we claim that substitution of old gas power plants with high throughput combined cycle will help achieve the goal of Iran’s power generation development more sustainably.
Research Article
Univariate Statistics of the RCPs Forced ET–SCI Based Extreme Climate Indices Over Pakistan
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0166,
ABSTRACT: Numerical summaries of univariate climatic records, such as temperature and precipitation, are useful for making quantitative decisions for mitigation and adaptation measures. Climate simulations and projections often contain values that lie far away from substance of the data. These values can bias the summary statistics away from values representative for majority of the sample. This problem can be avoided by selecting ensembles approach as well as by using statistics that are resistant to the presence of such outliers. Hence, in addition to typical statistics, resistant statistics are used to investigate spatiotemporal changes in temperature and precipitation extremes over a versatile agro–climatic featured country of Pakistan, by engaging the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX‐GDDP) dataset under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 that provides statistically downscaled Coupled Model Inter‐comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate baseline (1971–2000) and projections (2021–2050) based on Expert Team on Sector–specific Climate Indices (ET–SCI) method. The results show the following: (a) Shifts in the univariate count statistics under the RCP8.5 are highly prominent with 0.81 degrees deviation in 5th percentile and with a substantial 1.86 degrees deviation in the 95th percentile of the maximum of daily maximum temperature over the projected time series. (b) Standard deviation of historical summer days is placed at 3.7 days with a consistent change under the RCP4.5 emission scenario. Nevertheless, the standard deviation of the summer days hikes by 5.9 days under the RCP8.5 emission scenario. (c) A distressing condition is comprehended under the RCP8.5 emission scenario where changes of 16.5 percent in the 5th and of 19.7 percent in the 95th percentiles are revealed in the warm nights future projections. (d) The maximum rate of simple daily intensity of precipitation in the historical period exists at 0.2 mm/day, however, the RCP4.5 emission scenario thrusts that up to 0.6 mm/day in the projection period. (e) Under the RCP8.5 emission scenario, the standard deviation inflates by 36.4 days while range digresses by an enormous 95 days in the projection period of the consecutive dry days. The outcomes are of applied practice in improving local approaches for hydro–reservoirs and eco‐environment controlling, especially in the diverse climatic region of Pakistan.
Technical Note
The Ethical Implications of Eco-Individualism on Sustainable Environment
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0167,
ABSTRACT: Environmental ethics is a discipline, which specifies and analyzes how human being ought to behave. The significance of ethics is to provide guidelines for Subject-Object relationship (Ich-Es). Some may argue that “Ich-Es” is justified by environmental utilitarianism. The moral implications of environmental materialism/eco-individualism include modification of the ecosystem, scarcity of resources/energy, drought, flooding and extinction of species. The question is how eco-individualism would or environmental self be resolved if not eliminated? Applying the method of philosophical analysis, this research explores the ethical implications of eco-individualism. The objective of the research is to demonstrate how sustainable environmental education (SEE) could help to ameliorate the impacts of eco-individualism. Although sustainable environmental education is challenged by lack professional teaches and funds for its implementation but it reawakens environmental consciousness for the common good of humanity.
Review Article
Present and Future Sustainability Development of 3D Metal Printing
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0168,
ABSTRACT: Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing is a relatively new concept and promising technology for industrial production. It is important to investigate the environmental impact of the AM process in light of the environmental critical situation of the Earth. The elimination of some costly prefabrication processes such as molding or post-fabrication stages such as machining and welding required in traditional manufacturing methods favor the AM process and provide beneficial economic advantages. Furthermore, the reduction of manufacturing steps contributes to environmental protection through fewer operations, less material, and energy consumption, and reduced transportation. This study is a review for the assessment of environmental impact and life cycle of some well-known AM technologies for manufacturing metallic parts and components. The fabrication of a pump impeller is simulated through a well-known metal production AM technology and casting process for direct comparison. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is applied to measure the environmental impact in five different stages of pump impeller lifetime with the two different fabrication processes. AM compared to casting has an environmental impact reduction potential of 15%, 20%, 65%, 20%, and 10% respectively in Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidifications Potential (AP), Water Aquatic Eco-toxicity Potential (FAETP), Human Toxicity Potential (HTP), and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion (ODP). Using hydroelectricity and renewable electricity mitigate the environmental impact of the AM process in pre-manufacturing and manufacturing stages temporarily until the advancement of AM technology for consuming less energy. Recommendations for future research to enhance the environmental sustainability of the AM process is proposed as outcomes of this study.