7 results found.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(2), em0154, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/10812
ABSTRACT: The review paper embodies the current trends and advancements involved in the transformation of biomass to enhanced products, bioenergy, and chemicals. Some selected chemical process like the slow-fast pyrolysis, catalytic fast pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction, transesterification and lignin valorization by depolymerization are aptly suited for biorefinery processing, and were discussed in this review. The (catalytic) fast pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction are quite similar, but differ in their feedstock preparations, reactor configuration and thermal or energy optimization. The review covers the biomass selection, chemical conversion techniques and most importantly the required heterogeneous catalysts (where applicable). The work further suggests the superiority of dedicated chemicals over drop-in and smart drop-in chemicals, due the complete usage of biomass. Relative to the oil refinery process, biorefining is quite novel and accompanied by its drawbacks. These challenges range from catalyst poisoning and deactivation to energy intensiveness and eventually as being cost-ineffective. The challenge encountered in biorefinery is in the economic feasibility, as it is inferred from this review that the pre-treatment process takes up to about 20% of the conversion cost. Although the biorefinery plant employ lignocellulosic biomass, but study shows that the use of biomass is largely under-utilized. The solid products/ wastes from pyrolysis for example, can be utilized as source of energy for the process. In the pursuit for sustainability, it is essential to ensure a balance-energy-mix, where every other type of energy will have a role to play to avoid dependence on only one solution for the future. Therefore, in contrast to the dwindling fossil fuels, it can be generally speculated that the future for biorefining is bright. It was concluded that with vast knowledge on the suitable heterogeneous catalysts and proper optimization of process parameters (temperatures, pressure, and reactant species); some of the biorefining processes will result into a significant increase in industrial fuels and bio-based drop-in chemicals leading towards commercialization.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0137, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8407
ABSTRACT: In the current investigation, a temperature sensitivity analysis of hard and softwood pyrolysis was conducted on an in silico platform. The selected samples were beech (hardwood), ailanthus (soft hardwood) and spruce (softwood). Upon the successful development of the model on ASPEN Plus v8.8, the results of the model prediction showed that the yield of bio-oil reduced with a rise in process temperature. Beech had the highest bio-oil yield of the feedstock investigated. At 350oC, oil yield was 36.72%, 35.13% and 32.89% for beech, ailanthus and spruce respectively. The syn-gas yield was 39.99%, 38.25% and 35.82% and bio-char yield was 45.44%, 47.58% and 50.77% for beech, ailanthus and spruce respectively (at 650oC). For the entirety of the temperature range studied, a gentle fall in char yield was observed for all feedstock type (though more significant at temperatures above 500oC). The model also predicted the yield of volatiles (bio-oil and syn-gas) to be higher for the hard and soft hardwood than for the softwood and this was vice versa for the char yield.
Slow Catalytic Pyrolysis of Saccharum munja using Bio-genically Synthesized Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticles for the Production of high yield Biofuel
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(3), em0126, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7900
ABSTRACT: In this study, the slow pyrolysis has been performed in a fixed bed reactor using Saccharum munja (munj) as raw biomass material and bio-genically synthesized nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NF-NPs) as a catalyst at an optimum temperature of 450 oC. In the absence of any catalyst, the obtained yield of bio-oil was 43.3 %. The maximum yield of bio-oil (72 %) was obtained with 0.4 g of NF-NPs. With 0.2g of ZSM-5, the obtained bio-oil yield was 44.5 %. The characterization of NF-NPs was studied by using UV-VIS analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The characterization of Bio-char was done by using FT-IR spectroscopy.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0094, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5830
ABSTRACT: Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the major agricultural products of tropical West Africa in general and Nigeria in particular. In this study ASPEN plus V8.8 was used to develop a thermodynamic model for the pyrolysis of rice husk. The model was validated and found to be accurate especially on the domain of oil and gas yields. It was used to study the effect of temperature on the product yield and oil composition. The fluid products increase with temperature and an optimum of 60% can be obtained from rice husk. The optimum oil yield was 44.2% obtained at 400°C. The synthesis gas was composed basically of hydrogen gas, methane and traces of higher hydrocarbons, the char consisted of carbon and silicon oxide ash while the oil was made-up of acidic organic compounds, aldehydes, pyrolytic water and others. At 600°C, the predictions revealed an oil composition of 84.7% acids, 7.9% pyrolytic water, 7.42% aldehyde and traces of alcohol and other compounds. The results from the thermodynamic predictions showed that rice husk is an excellent feedstock for the biofuels production via the thermo-chemical energy conversion route. The study has provided a useful framework for proper comparisons of the energy potential between different biomass feedstock.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(2), em0078, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3965
ABSTRACT: Energy crisis and environmental degradation is considered most talked of the topics of modern global development. Medical waste has dangerous impacts on the environment. Besides, load shedding has come to be a great problem in socioeconomic development of Bangladesh for the reason that of the serious electricity crisis. This study also focused on energy recovery potentiality from plastic content of medical waste (PCMW) by converting it into electric energy. This plastic waste integrates an enormous amount of energy and consequently, attention in new renewable sources of energy from these wastes has been augmented, at the present time. Bangladesh as well as Jessore city faces an excessive environmental problem because of improper management of medical waste. This study demonstrated that the medical waste generation rate in Jessore city was found to be approximately 3 ton/day which is about 6.89% of total waste generation in this city throughout the study period. Besides, electric power generation projections from the PCMW were estimated at 74448 kWh per year respectively. This study suggested that appropriate PCMW management policy as well as awareness increasing regarding the management of PCMW is requirement for the development of existing status of living condition.
Impact of Injection Timing on the Performance of Single Cylinder DI Diesel Engine Fueled with Solid Waste Converted Fuel
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(4), 39, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3914
ABSTRACT: The transfer of waste plastics has turned into an incredible test to the waste management system and because of urbanization and industrialization has prompted consumption of petroleum derivative for energy prerequisite in different areas. The answers for these issues could be overwhelmed by legitimate use of waste plastics as fuel. The paper depicts a correlation of the utilization of pyrolysis oil which is plastic pyrolysis oil (PPO) and diesel in the appraisal of engine execution. Pyrolysis oil is utilized as fuel to check the execution on one-cylinder with water cooled diesel engine. From the investigation, it was found that without engine adjustment, the PPO offers better engine execution with advancement of Injection timing (IT) and could enhance execution by modifying engine.
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(2), 18, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/81642
ABSTRACT: Biomass pyrolysis is a thermo-chemical conversion process that is of both industrial and ecological importance. The efficient chemical transformation of waste biomass to numerous products via pyrolysis reactions depends on process kinetic rates; hence the need for kinetic models to best design and operate the pyrolysis. Also, for an efficient design of an environmentally sustainable pyrolysis process of a specific lignocellulosic waste, a proper understanding of its thermo-kinetic behavior is imperative. Thus, pyrolysis kinetics of castor seed de-oiled cake (Ricinus communis) using thermogravimetric technique was studied. The decomposition of the cake was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere with a flow rate of 100mL min-1 from ambient temperature to 900 °C. The results of the thermal profile showed moisture removal and devolatilization stages, and maximum decomposition of the cake occurred at a temperature of 200-400 °C. The kinetic parameters such as apparent activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and order of reaction were determined using Friedman (FD), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) kinetic models. The average apparent activation energy values of 124.61, 126.95 and 129.80 kJmol-1 were calculated from the slopes of the respective models. The apparent activation energy values obtained depends on conversion, which is an evidence of multi-step kinetic process during the pyrolytic decomposition of the cake. The kinetic data would be of immense benefit to model, design and develop a suitable thermo-chemical system for the conversion of waste de-oil cake to energy carrier.