Keyword: emission

16 results found.

Review Article
Impact of Biodiesel Engine Performance on Operations and the Environment: A Literature Review
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(4), em0200,
ABSTRACT: Fossil fuels have posed a great danger to the existence of living things in the world, and pollution is wreaking havoc on the planet’s ecosystems. Global fuel consumption has risen precipitously because of urbanization, industrialization, and an ever-increasing human population. It has become necessary to consider alternatives to petroleum-based fuels such as diesel and gasoline considering our current overdependence on these traditional sources of energy. In this scenario, biodiesel presents an excellent opportunity. Biodiesel is highly replicable since it is made mostly from renewable resources, such as food and non-edible plants. Biodiesel cannot be used directly in engines because of its high viscosity. The relevant literature is categorized in this study. This research also tries to highlight the benefits of utilizing biodiesel and the advances made by researchers. Various articles about biodiesel fuel and its blends in diesel and engines were gathered and sorted depending on the blending techniques used (complete substitution without diesel or partial substitution). The use of biodiesel in engines and its ability to compete with fossil fuel diesel in performance were among the topics covered in this research.
Biodiesel’s effect on engine performance and environmental impact will be examined in this article. The study reveals that B20 biodiesel will be a replacement for fossil fuel diesel as an alternate fuel. The results reveal that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for B20 biodiesel are identical to diesel and hence can serve as a potential alternative to petroleum-based fuels.
Research Article
Fossil Fuel Consumption, CO2 Emissions and Growth in High-Income Countries and Low-Income Countries
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(3), em0190,
ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the pairwise causality and co-integration that links fossil fuel consumption (FFC), carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and real gross domestic product (RGDP) between low-income countries (LIC) and high-income countries (HIC). This comparative analysis is anchored on Lv et al. (2019). Lv et al. (2019) enable the analytical framework model utilized to investigate the causality between FFC and CO2, CO2 and RGDP, and FFC and RGDP in HIC and LIC. Data were obtained from world development indicator between 1960 and 2019. The results obtained are, as follows: There exists a unidirectional causality, thus the RGDP granger causes CO2 in HIC, and no causality between RGDP and CO2 in LIC. Also, the study found no causality between FFC and RGDP, and FFC and CO2 in HIC and LIC. The mixed inter-regional causality result showed that there exists bi-directional causality between RGDP and CO2 for HIC and LIC. This implies that RGDP in LIC granger causes CO2 in HIC, and CO2 in HIC granger causes RGDP in LIC. Hence, the presence of a regional super-wicked problem. Also, CO2 in HIC granger causes FFC in LIC. The result suggests that countries should seamlessly adopt proportionate mitigation and adaptation policies to reduce the pollution transmission between economies. The non-existence of pairwise co-integration between FFC, CO2, and RGDP in HIC and LIC connotes that the CO2 reduction policy should be a short-term public policy strategy with conscious and deliberate targeting to avoid long-run growth reversal. Therefore, this paper concludes that reducing FFC may not necessarily lead to a decline in growth vice versa. Thus, to achieve a low carbon economy and a high growth regime, the global community should adopt a techno-economic paradigm model that would accelerate growth within a low-carbon economy regime to realize the 45% carbon reduction target by 2030 and the 2050 net-zero emission target.
Research Article
The External Cost of Electricity Generation: An Applicable Approach for Environmental Decision-Making on Electricity Exportation Strategy
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0165,
ABSTRACT: The Burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, fuel oil, natural gas, and diesel in power sector, has become one of the major sources of air pollutants, namely COX, NOX and SOX. These are thought to adversely affect the environment and human health. This paper assesses the external cost of electricity production from fossil fuel power plants in Iran using the Extern-E study. In addition, the future of average amount of emissions and their external cost was predicted according to the development of Iran’s power generation system. Investigation of power generation planning in Iran from 2013 to 2023 shows that the average emissions of PM10, SO2, CO, and CO2 will reduce by 26.7%, 54.2%, 65.4%, and 20%, respectively, in fossil power plants. Moreover, it was predicted that the average external cost of power generation in 2023 would decrease up to 28.9%, 27.6%, and 23.1% in low, medium, and high scenarios, respectively. Moreover, analyzing the trend of Iran’s electricity exportation and considering the prospect of Iran’s energy sector, we claim that substitution of old gas power plants with high throughput combined cycle will help achieve the goal of Iran’s power generation development more sustainably.
Research Article
Environmental Impact of Fresh Vegetables Supply: A Case-Study in Teresina, Brazil
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0160,
ABSTRACT: The current study presents an estimated environmental impact of CO2 emissions in the cargo transport process in the road modal, as part of the logistics chain for the distribution of horticultural items, highlighting the production of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), peppers (Capsicum annuum) and cucumbers (Cucumis sativus), from production centers in several Brazilian states to a food distribution center in Teresina, Northeast Brazil. In the next step, we added fresh vegetables purchased by an urban hospital at the distribution center to analyze the city’s food distribution system’s environmental impact. The data used were obtained at the distribution center Nova Ceasa and at an urban hospital to complete the last stage of the food distribution, corresponding to 2019. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) impact values correlated with horticulture production were recovered from the literature related to open-field vegetable crops under similar agricultural conditions. We computed the quantity of vegetables produced on-field, the distances traveled, the on-road transportation fuel, and the environmental impact using the GWP calculator. The study found a wide range of GWP values. From the studies and analyzes, the results indicated that the impact of GWP is greater in the production phase in the field, followed by urban transport except for fresh tomatoes. The tomato results showed greater environmental impact in the transport of more distant products and smaller quantities. Results suggest that crop production and the long traveled distances are the main factors in the environmental impact. We also concluded that the greater the amount of product transported in a trip, the lower the environmental impact.
Research Article
Importance of Energy Audit in Diesel Engine Fuelled with Biodiesel Blends: Review and Analysis
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(2), em0118,
ABSTRACT: Number of experiments have been performed on various performance and emission characteristics, effect of biodiesel blends on lubricity and input and output energy distribution in diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel blends. It is also reviewed that energy audit is used in buildings, plants, process and equipments and energy audit method was developed for fishing vessels based on similar systems for land based industries. In land based businesses, industries and households, energy audits are presently used to investigate the use of energy and to identify opportunities for the efficiency improvement and effectiveness in the energy use. Energy audits have been used in various sectors, industries and utilities. This paper is a review paper of energy audit and it is found that there is a vast scope for implementation of standardized energy audit in diese engines fuelled with biodiesel blends. Its objective is to find out a standard energy audit method for diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel blends which evaluate the feasibility of biodiesel blend as fuel and also harmonise the research of biodiesel as fuel.
Research Article
Effects of Combustion Vestibule Configuration on the Competence, Emissions and Combustion attributes of Direct Injection Diesel Prime Mover Powered with Diesel and Corn Oil Methyl Ester (CROME)
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0095,
ABSTRACT: Combustion processes and emissions attributes squarely depend on combustion vestibule volume shapes relative to injector jet directions and cone angles. For injectors with more number of holes, these parameters change and may result in enhanced performance. By this we can make the gases to flow in different patterns compared to conventional engine and can anticipate higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and reduced emanations to meet stringent norms. Hence to optimize combustion chamber shapes (CCS) and vary squish, appropriate injection strategies are essential. In this occasion lab probes were conducted on a single cylinder four stroke open or induction swirl diesel engine using corn oil methyl ester (CROME) as fuel. For this variety of CCS were designed and manufactured. Injector with 6 numbers of hole and 0.2 mm orifice size was used to check its effects on the biodiesel powered engine. The suitable engine available was having Hemispherical Bowl Piston (HBP). To probe the effects of other CCS on the performance of diesel engine, Cylindrical Bowl Piston (CBP), Toroidal Bowl Piston (TBP) and Toroidal Re-entrant Bowl Piston (RBP) vestibule volume shapes were manufactured keeping ratio of compression same. For 100% replacement of diesel by biodiesel the injection pressures and injection timings tested were in the range of 210 bar to 250 bar and 19°bTDC to 27°bTDC which are based on our previous research works on other biodiesels. But the performance was maximised for 240 bar and 27°bTDC for all CCS which is reported in this paper. Engine variables such as fuel flow rate, brake power, torque, and temperature of exhaust smoke, combustion variables such as rate of heat release (HRR), peak pressure (PP), ignition delay (ID), combustion duration (CD), and exhaust emissions such as smoke opacity, HC, CO, and NOx, were measured. Results obtained with RBP shape and for CROME with 6 number of hole injector concluded in overall ameliorated competence with lesser emission levels of CO, HC and smoke, but NOx was almost same as that of diesel. Also reduced ID, CD and increased PP resulted in decreased burning time loss (BTL) increasing competence. Hence this research work shows that the CROME is also compatible and capable of replacing diesel in a diesel engine efficiently.
Research Article
Effect of Injection Parameters: Injection Timing and Injection Pressure on the Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of CRDI Diesel Engine Operate with Palm Oil Methyl Ester (POME)
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(3), em0091,
ABSTRACT: This experimental study mainly focused on the investigation of CRDI diesel engine powered with palm oil methyl ester (POME) biodiesel and diesel fuels. The Toroidal Re-entrant combustion chamber shape (TRCC) and 6 holes CRDI injector were selected for experiment. The current research engine operated with constant CR 17.5 and speed 1500 rpm. In the first phase of work, the injection timing (IT) varied from -25 °BTDC to 5 °ATDC with interval of 5 degree during the experiments. The injection time-10 °BTDC has been optimized for higher engine efficiency. In the second phase of work, the injection opening pressure (IOP) has been varied form 600 bar to 1000 bar with increment of 100 bar interval during the experiments. The IOP of 900 bar has been optimized with constant fuel IT -10 °BTDC. Finally, the end results of experiments were reported that combined effects of IT (-10 °BTDC) and IOP (900 bar) enhanced the engine output in terms of brake thermal efficiency (BTE), also minimizing the pollutants using TRCC shape and 6-hole CRDI injector for CRDI diesel engine at 80% load.
Research Article
Influence of Injection Strategy on B20MOME Fueled CRDI Engine with Toroid Shaped Piston Cavity
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(3), em0086,
ABSTRACT: New technologies in the fuel injection system have improved the performance of the CI engine. Even though the biodiesel is universally accepted as a suitable alternate fuel for the CI (compression ignition) engine, there have been limited study reported on its utilization for single cylinder CRDI (common rail direct injection) engine. Use of biodiesel with diesel in a CRDI engine reduces proportionate consumption of diesel. In the present study, performance and combustion tests were carried out with the CRDI engine using the B20 blend of mahua methyl ester in diesel on volume basis called (B20 MOME). This study was conducted on a CRDI converted variable compression ratio engine with toroidal shaped cavity in the piston adopted. The tests were carried out at three injection pressures of 400 bar, 600 bar and 800 bar and for three injection timings of 15° BTDC, 20°BTDC and 25°BTDC, respectively. The results of the combustion and performance tests with the CRDI engine were compared with the performance of a CI engine at specified operating conditions with mechanical injection system using diesel as the fuel. The results indicated significant increase in the performance of the engine with increase of injection pressure. At 800 bar injection pressure, brake thermal efficiency of 29.98%, 27.61%, and 26.98% was attained at 15BTDC, 20BTDC and 25BTDC, injection timing respectively using B20 MOME.
Research Article
Effect of Injection Timing on the Utilization of B20 Blends of Dairy Scum Oil Methyl Esters (Dsome) Fulled Diesel Engine
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(2), em0082,
ABSTRACT: Diesel engines are the prime movers that are highly efficient compared to their counter part of petrol engines. However, higher NOx, particulate matter CO, HC are the draw backs associated with their operation. Renewable fuels like biodiesel and their blends are suitable and substitute for different applications as they are renewable in nature and provide satisfaction for fossil fuels of diesel which are exhaustible in nature and add burden to the Indian economy. In this direction the experiments were planned on the modified diesel engines to study the effects of Dairy scum oil methyl esters B20 blend (DSOME B20). By Advancing the time of injection from 19° to 27° BTDC, keeping injection opening pressure IOP constant results are obtained and analysed. It is noticed that higher BTE, lower emissions of smoke, HC, CO emissions while NOx increased.
Research Article
Effect of Injection Parameters: Injection Timing and Injection Pressure on the Performance of Diesel Engine Fueled with Palm Oil Methyl Ester
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(2), em0077,
ABSTRACT: This experimental study paper investigation mainly focused on CI engine performance with using the palm oil methyl ester (POME). The injection timing (IT) varied from 19° btdc, 23° btdc, 27° btdc and 31° btdc with increment step of 4° CA and similarly, injection opening pressure were varied from 210 bar, 220bar, 230 bar, 240 bar and 250 bar with increment order of 10 bar in the existed diesel engine. The final results were reported for optimized parameters of diesel engine with engine speed 1500 rpm and CR 17.5. The experimental results of diesel engine performance improved in terms of brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and substantial reduction of harmful emissions at both optimized engine parameters of 27°BTDC and 240 bar, when engine has powered with Palm oil methyl ester (POME) as a alternative fuel.
Research Article
Influence of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Dairy Scum Biodiesel Operated Diesel Engine Performance
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(1), em0064,
ABSTRACT: Effort towards prospective utilization of dairy waste scum oil methyl ester (DSOME) is extremely pronounced as a promising sustainable unconventional fuel for diesel engine as they have intrinsic oxygen content emits less HC and CO emission and contradictorily increases the NOx. In this regard, the present study elucidates the influence of engine exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on diesel engine performance, combustion and emission characteristics operated with DSOME-B20 (20% dairy scum biodiesel, by volume). The brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) are appreciably improved for 5% and 10% EGR in comparison with 15% EGR rate. Mainly, about 49-57% of NOx can be reduced with 5-15% EGR rate but increasing EGR rate more than 10% dilutes the fresh intake air hence reduces the NOx and increases the HC, CO emissions. Hence use of 5-10% EGR in diesel engine is advantageous to get considerably improved performance and reduced HC, CO and NOx emissions.
Research Article
Experimental Investigations on Manifold Injection of Diesel and Biodiesel in a HCCI Engine with Inlet Charge Heating
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(4), 45,
ABSTRACT: In the present study, engine tests were conducted on a modified single cylinder four stroke compression ignition (CI) engine operated in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode with injection of diesel and biodiesels through intake manifold. The intake air temperature varied from 50 to 80 °C for diesel and 55 to 85 °C for biodiesel using air pre heater. The coolant temperature varied from 40 to 60 °C for both the diesel and biodiesel operation. For the comparison purpose, CI engine fuelled with diesel was operated at the injection timing of 23°BTDC and an injector pressure of 205 bar. It is seen that HCCI mode of engine operation with diesel and biodiesel resulted into 35-45% lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE) with significant reduction in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission by 98% and smoke emissions by 65-75%. On the other hand, HCCI engine operation with diesel and biodiesels showed increased hydrocarbon (HC) emissions by 20-25 times and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 30-40%. However, peak pressure (PP) and heat release rate (HRR) decreased by 20-25% when compared to CI mode of engine operation.
Research Article
Ecological Footprint Assessment and Reduction of an Academic Building in Shahdol (India)
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(4), 42,
ABSTRACT: Buildings are responsible for significant natural resource consumption, waste generation, and environmental pollution. Building impacts are generally assessed through life cycle analysis (LCA). This study integrates LCA with the Ecological Footprint indicator for the assessment of a building's impact on the planet. In order to determine ecological impact of a building, a methodology has been established for estimation of Life Cycle Ecological Footprint (LCEFtotal) of the building, as well as to assess its impact due to resource consumption (energy, water, building materials, manpower etc.) and waste assimilation over the lifecycle. For an academic building located in India taken as a case study, the LCEFtotal is found to be 4397.03 gha and the LCEFtotal per unit floor area is 0.60 gha/m2. The average annual Ecological Footprint (EFavg) of the academic building is 73.28 gha/yr that is approximately 20 times more than the actual physical land of the campus. The average annual Ecological Footprint per student (EFavg/student) of the academic building is 0.045 gha/yr/student. If annual grid electricity consumption of the building is replaced by the grid-connected rooftop photovoltaic (GRSPV) system in the ratios of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25%, it can reduce up to 61%, 54%, 31%, and 15% of the total LCEFtotal of the academic building, respectively.
Research Article
Effect of Combustion Chamber Shapes, Nozzle Holes Geometries, Injection Pressures and Injection Timing on the Performance Diesel Engine Fueled with Palm Oil Methyl Ester
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 35,
ABSTRACT: This experimental study mainly focused on investigation of the performance of diesel engine using palm oil methyl ester (POME). The engine operating conditions such as optimized IT of 27°BTDC and varied IOP with nozzle geometry and combustion chamber shapes were investigated. The better operating conditions of combustion chamber shape and nozzle geometry were reported. The operating conditions of the engine were maintained 1500 rpm and CR of 17.5. For diesel engine operation with POME, it could be revealed that IT of 27°BTDC, IOP of 240 bar, 5 holes nozzle geometry with Torroidal Re-entrant combustion chamber (TRCC) gives more improvement in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) with minimum emissions.
Research Article
Experimental Studies on Four Stroke Diesel Engine Fuelled with Tamarind Seed Oil as Potential Alternate Fuel for Sustainable Green Environment
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(1), 10,
ABSTRACT: The main objective of this present novel work is to investigate the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel derived from the tamarind seed through the transesterification process as potential alternative feedstock for the diesel engine. The physio-chemical properties of tamarind seed methyl ester (TSME) were evaluated experimentally and compared with the base fuel. Test fuels were prepared in 3 concentrations such as B10 (10% tamarind seed oil and 90% diesel), B20 and B30.Experiments were conducted at a constant speed, the injection timing of 23° crank angle and compression ratio 17.5:1 with varying load conditions to investigate the diesel engine characteristics. TSME 20 shown better thermal efficiency (34.41%) over diesel which is 1.17 % higher and also it produces lower emissions of CO, HC, and smoke opacity. N-Amyl alcohol (NAA) is used as a fuel additive for the optimum blend of TSME20; added in 5% and 10% concentration on the volume basis. From the analysis of experimental data, the use of fuel additives significantly reduces the smoke opacity by 29.49 % for TSME20 NAA 10% blend in addition to the reduction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons emissions; however, the specific fuel consumption and the oxides of nitrogen were marginally increased.
Research Article
Effect of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Induction on the Performance of Rubber Seed Oil Methy Ester Fuelled Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDi) Dual Fuel Engines
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(2), 7,
ABSTRACT: Renewable fuels are in biodegradable nature and they tender good energy security and foreign exchange savings. In addition they address environmental concerns and socio-economic issues. The present work presents the experimental investigations carried out on the utilization of such renewable fuel combinations for diesel engine applications. For this a single-cylinder four-stroke water cooled direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine provided with CMFIS (Conventional Mechanical Fuel Injection System) was rightfully converted to operate with CRDi injection systems enabling high pressure injection of Rubber seed oil methyl ester (RuOME) in the dual fuel mode with induction of varied gas flow rates of hydrogen and hydrogen enriched CNG (HCNG) gas combinations. Experimental investigations showed a considerable improvement in dual fuel engine performance with acceptable brake thermal efficiency and reduced emissions of smoke, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and slightly increased nitric oxide (NOx) emission levels for increased hydrogen and HCNG flow rates. Further CRDi facilitated dual fuel engine showed improved engine performance compared to CMFIS as the former enabled high pressure (900 bar) injection of the RuOME and closer to TDC (Top Dead Centre) as well. Combustion parameters such as ignition delay, combustion duration, pressure-crank angle and heat release rates were analyzed and compared with baseline data generated. Combustion analysis showed that the rapid rate of burning of hydrogen and HCNG along with air mixtures increased due to presence of hydrogen in total and in partial combination with CNG which further resulted into higher cylinder pressures and energy release rates. However, sustained research that can provide feasible engine technology operating on such fuels in dual fuel operation can pave the way for continued fossil fuel usage.