EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH

Keyword: energy

27 results found.

Research Article
Thermal Performance Assessment of External Wall Construction for Energy-Efficient Buildings
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(3), em0189, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12039
ABSTRACT: Building envelope such as external walls are still constructed from poor materials which results in higher heating and cooling loads thereby raising energy bills. Improving building energy efficiency with advanced technologies is being sought. In this context, a numerical study was conducted to solve the coupled heat transfers through a standard wall structure used in Libyan residential buildings. Different techniques were compared to reduce the thermal transmittance of the traditional wall structure for saving energy including the application of radiant shield, low-e coating, insulating filling and external insulation. The numerical results revealed that the thermal radiation inside the cavities of hollow block is important and accounts for 21% of total heat transfer, while conductive and convective heat transfer contributes by 65% and 14% from the total, respectively. The obtained thermal transmittance value of the common wall structure was considered as high as 2.33 W/m2·K due to lower resistance of wall elements. The adoption of 50 mm layer of expanded polystyrene insulation (EPS) to the exterior wall showed the best thermal performance with a reduction of thermal transmittance by 45%. On the other hand, filling the interior of cavities with EPS resulted in a 37% reduction of thermal transmittance compared to 20% of using 3 mm aluminum foil as a radiant barrier in the middle of the cavities. The last case was less effective with a reduction of almost 10% when a commercial coating of 0.4 surface emissivity was applied to the interior of cavities.
Research Article
Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Horticultural Processing Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises on Energy and Water Use in Kenya
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(3), em0187, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12030
ABSTRACT: Horticultural processing involves intensive consumption of water and energy. It’s unknown whether the current energy and water use practices by micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) are sustainable. This study was conducted to investigate knowledge, attitude, and practices on energy and water use by horticultural processing MSMEs in Kenya. A cross sectional research design was adopted and purposive sampling was used to select 39 horticultural processing MSMEs. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The study found that the MSMEs had excellent knowledge on energy and water use efficiency. The study further found out that 75% of the respondents had a positive attitude towards the environment. Over 80% of the respondents had adopted simple housekeeping practices geared at conserving energy and water. Multiple linear regression indicates age has an effect on knowledge, attitude, and practices (R2=0.272; F=4.238; P=0.012). The other variables had a non-significant effect on knowledge, attitude, and practices. Despite the high level of knowledge possessed by the MSMEs, they still have not adopted long term practices that will lead to sustainability in the long run. In addition, the findings from this study reveal that MSMEs are not sufficiently motivated to move from positive attitude towards energy and water use practices. Subsidies and rewards could help MSMEs adopt practices that will lead to sustainability in this industry in the long run.
Research Article
Economic and Environmental Analyses of Multi-Generation Renewable Energy System for Dairy Farms
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(1), em0174, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11397
ABSTRACT: In the present work, economic and environment analyses of multi-generational micro gas turbine systems are reported for a grid-independent dairy farm in Ontario, Canada. Onsite anaerobic digesters utilize farm waste to produce carbon neutral biogas for combustion in the micro gas turbine modules. A range of micro gas turbines coupled with absorption refrigeration units and an organic Rankine cycle are driven by the recovered waste heat to meet the cooling and electrical needs of farm sizes between 250 and 6000 cows. Farms of these sizes are observed to be capable of having their cooling and electricity needs met with micro gas turbines ranging in capacity from 100 to 1000 kW output. Environmental performance is maximized when the net output of the system just matches the energy requirement of the farm, and produces no excess electricity. Thus to minimize the environmental impact, but remain financially viable, various configurations are suggested for farm sizes under 2000 cows.
Research Article
A Comprehensive Review and the Efficiency Analysis of Horizontal and Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0163, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11001
ABSTRACT: The Wind has the potential as an alternative source of renewable energy. Natural wind from the earth’s atmosphere is captured before converted into mechanical energy and then electrical energy. This paper presents a comparison of the efficiency of the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT). The efficiency is determined using SOLIDWORKS Flow Simulation considering the wind scenario, a constant wind speed of 5 km/h with constant wind direction. It has been found that the drag coeffiecient of HAWT, VAWT–Savonius and VAWT– Darrieus are 0.5175, 0.2605 and 13.5622 respectively. This paper also proposes building a wind farm in Seamatan where the average wind speed is highest in Sarawak, Malaysia ranging from 4 km/h to 9 km/h.
Research Article
Exergy Analysis as a Tool for Addressing Climate Change
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(2), em0148, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/9346
ABSTRACT: Exergy is described as a tool for addressing climate change, in particular through identifying and explaining the benefits of sustainable energy, so the benefits can be appreciated by experts and non-experts alike and attained. Exergy can be used to understand climate change measures and to assess and improve energy systems. Exergy also can help better understand the benefits of utilizing sustainable energy by providing more useful and meaningful information than energy provides. Exergy clearly identifies efficiency improvements and reductions in wastes and environmental impacts attributable to sustainable energy. Exergy can also identify better than energy the environmental benefits and economics of energy technologies. Exergy should be applied by engineers and scientists, as well as decision and policy makers, involved in addressing climate change.
Research Article
Nuclear Energy: Non-Electric Applications
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(1), em0147, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/9305
ABSTRACT: Nuclear energy is often viewed as linked exclusively to electrical power generation. However, the applications for nuclear energy are significantly greater than only electricity, and include cogeneration, district heating and cooling, high-temperature process heating, hydrogen and alternative fuel production, transportation and desalination. These additional applications expand the prospects for nuclear energy notably, and enhance the benefits that can be derived from it, such as reduced environmental impact and climate change mitigation. Interest in non-electric applications of nuclear energy is growing for environmental, economic, security and other reasons. In this paper, non-electric applications of nuclear energy are reviewed, including technological, environmental and economic issues of such applications as well as future prospects and benefits of non-electric applications of nuclear energy.
Technical Note
4-Stroke CI Engine: An Experimental Comparison of Performance Characteristics for 14% Biodiesel & Pure Diesel
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0142, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8568
ABSTRACT: Global oil reserves are facing great stress because of massive fuel consumption worldwide and the booming world population. These fossil fuels, when processed, affect the environment by releasing greenhouse gases. The outstanding usage of oil inspired many countries to develop alternative fuels. Biodiesel is the future prospect to fulfil the energy needs. It is compatible, ready to use fuel and can easily be deployed in the existing engines by combining it with conventional fuel (diesel). Biodiesel emits a lower amount of greenhouse gases. In this experiment, we first synthesized biodiesel using methanol, NaOH and vegetable oil through transestrification process. After that, we prepared a sample for 14% biodiesel which was then used to run a 4-stroke compression ignition (CI) engine that was attached to the engine testbed. After that, we re-run the same 4-stroke CI Engine with pure-diesel. From the data obtained and subsequent data-analysis, the 14% biodiesel came out to be less efficient (avg. 3% lower brake power and 8.9% lower brake thermal efficiency) and more expensive (avg. 12.8% higher fuel consumption) as compared to pure-diesel.
Literature Review
A Review of Renewable Energy Options, Applications, Facilitating Technologies and Recent Developments
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0138, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8432
ABSTRACT: A critical overview of renewable energy is provided, including descriptions of renewable energy sources, technologies, assessments, comparisons and planning as well as energy technologies that facilitate renewable energy sources. The renewable energy types considered include solar, wind, geothermal, bioenergy and waste-derived energy, ocean thermal energy, tidal, wave and hydraulic. Also covered for contextual and broader purposes are energy systems more generally and their sustainability. In addition, recent research on new renewable energy sources as well as important recent developments in renewable energy are considered.
Research Article
Biofuel Certification Performance: A Review & Analysis
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(3), em0124, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7864
ABSTRACT: The biofuel performance certification’s scope is reviewed. An operational definition of biofuel performance certification has been developed. The certification of biofuel performance has been recognized as an effective assessment methodology and tool to manage biofuel consumption and improve biofuel performance systematically. It is found that a biofuel performance certification method is required in biofuel industry and biofuel research to authenticate the biodiesel and its blends for use in diesel engine.
Research Article
Importance of Energy Audit in Diesel Engine Fuelled with Biodiesel Blends: Review and Analysis
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(2), em0118, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7596
ABSTRACT: Number of experiments have been performed on various performance and emission characteristics, effect of biodiesel blends on lubricity and input and output energy distribution in diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel blends. It is also reviewed that energy audit is used in buildings, plants, process and equipments and energy audit method was developed for fishing vessels based on similar systems for land based industries. In land based businesses, industries and households, energy audits are presently used to investigate the use of energy and to identify opportunities for the efficiency improvement and effectiveness in the energy use. Energy audits have been used in various sectors, industries and utilities. This paper is a review paper of energy audit and it is found that there is a vast scope for implementation of standardized energy audit in diese engines fuelled with biodiesel blends. Its objective is to find out a standard energy audit method for diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel blends which evaluate the feasibility of biodiesel blend as fuel and also harmonise the research of biodiesel as fuel.
Research Article
Natural Gas Consumption and Economic Growth in Tanzania
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(2), em0113, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/6430
ABSTRACT: After crude oil, natural gas has become one of the most important energy sources in the world. For a long time, Tanzania has been exploring for natural gas. The first gas discovering was in 1974 in Songo Songo island southern part of Tanzania and the production started in 2004. It is always believed that gas consumption leads to the growth and development in the economics of that area. The uses of gas in homes, industries increase the living standard of the people. This study concentrates on finding the relationship between natural gas consumption and economic growth in Tanzania by using autoregressive distributed lag model, with the data from TPDC, and World Bank from 1995 to 2018. Economic growth is mainly determined by GDP, FDI, increase of population in the urban and inflation rate. The result of this study indicates that there is no long-run relationship between gas consumption and economic growth. On top of that, causality is only found in Gas consumption to FDI.
Research Article
Fossil Fuel Substitution with Renewables for Electricity Generation – Effects on Sustainability Goals
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(1), em0111, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/6344
ABSTRACT: The substitution of fossil fuel power plants with renewable units will lead to a profound reduction of CO2 emissions and will assist in evading the Global Climate Change. Using demand data from the electricity grid of Texas, this paper develops a scenario for the substitution of coal, at first, and of all fossil fuel power plants, secondly, in the entire State of Texas. Meeting the electricity demand of the grid with renewables, makes it necessary to develop significant energy storage capacity in addition to the renewable – wind and solar – installations. Because of the lower pant capacity factors of wind and solar units, the calculations show that significantly higher renewable power capacity must be built than the current capacity of the fossil fuel units to be substituted. Also, that a substantial fraction of the generated energy is lost in the storage-recovery processes. All these factors are expected to increase the price of electricity paid by the consumers. Ahis will have an impact on the less affluent segments of the population and – if ignored by national energy policies – will affect the goal to reduce inequality within and among countries.
Research Article
A Conceptual Design of Energy Harvest from Roadside Trees of a Highway
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(1), em0106, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/6264
ABSTRACT: An experimental setup is constructed to harvest energy from wind by means of oscillating of a body, structure or even trees. A vertical stem which can oscillate or bend is connected with a rack and pinion and finally pinion is connected with generator to harvest the electrical energy. Once the force is applied on the top of the stem, the connecting wire pulls the rack and pinion is in rotary motion and generates the power. The experiments are carried out for both applied static force and wind assist dynamic force. The experimental results show that the forces exerted on the stem are very much influenced by the stem height, the rack length for power generation. The results from wind assist experiments reveals that the sail size and the materials of both stem and sails play vital role on power generation. The constructed setup shows a good prospect on power generation from wind specially the places like highways, urban areas or any other places where the tree or any other object or structure oscillate.
Research Article
Wasteland Utilization for B. balcooa Cultivation: Socio-economic and Environmental Impacts through Bamboo-based Product Development
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(4), em0103, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5957
ABSTRACT: Declining fossil fuel and increasing CO2 emissions from non-renewable fuel leading us to climate change which signifies to reduce fossil fuel dependency and promotes bioenergy as renewable. To address such issue Abellon Clean Energy has developed captive farming of B. balcooa for environment friendly bio-energy feedstock cultivation in; 1112, 2223, 2964 and 6175 plants/hectare densities to understand cost of cultivation and its subsequent use in cottage industry, energy substitute and high value products. Farmers’ field trials were also performed as 1112 plants/hectare at three districts of Gujarat. The optimum plantation density was observed to be 1112 plants/hectare at captive and farmers’ field having approximately 57.70 MT/hectare biomass yield with 32-39 USD/MT cost of production. If 5% of waste land of India cultivates B. balcooa, with 50% biomass yield, 67.51 million metric tonne (mMT)/year bamboo biomass can be produced. Bamboos generates worth of 9788 million USD or 7696 million USD yearly from handicraft and construction respectively. Bamboo grown at marginal ecologies can fetch around 12.83 mMT/year from cottage industrial products worth of 16616 million USD reducing bamboo import. Waste from cottage industries can produce annually bio-energy pellets worth of 13987 million USD which could replace 63.18 mMT of coal or 21.60 mMT of LPG. Optionally 7560 million liters/year of bioethanol can be produced out of waste generated from incense stick processing worth 5670 million USD. Further 30% of bamboo from marginal land cultivation can produce 20.25 mMT/year of activated charcoal worth of 34425 million USD. Indirect employment of 8.66 million people is accounted for incense stick, pellet production, logistics, marketing, etc. B. balcooa has potential for carbon sequestration through marginal land development impacting India’s social, economic and environment conditions that also improves soil quality.
Research Article
Assessment of Electrical Energy from Pyrolysis of Medical Waste in Jessore City, Bangladesh
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(2), em0078, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3965
ABSTRACT: Energy crisis and environmental degradation is considered most talked of the topics of modern global development. Medical waste has dangerous impacts on the environment. Besides, load shedding has come to be a great problem in socioeconomic development of Bangladesh for the reason that of the serious electricity crisis. This study also focused on energy recovery potentiality from plastic content of medical waste (PCMW) by converting it into electric energy. This plastic waste integrates an enormous amount of energy and consequently, attention in new renewable sources of energy from these wastes has been augmented, at the present time. Bangladesh as well as Jessore city faces an excessive environmental problem because of improper management of medical waste. This study demonstrated that the medical waste generation rate in Jessore city was found to be approximately 3 ton/day which is about 6.89% of total waste generation in this city throughout the study period. Besides, electric power generation projections from the PCMW were estimated at 74448 kWh per year respectively. This study suggested that appropriate PCMW management policy as well as awareness increasing regarding the management of PCMW is requirement for the development of existing status of living condition.
Research Article
The Motivation for Renewable Energy and its Comparison with Other Energy Sources: A Review
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(1), em0076, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/4005
ABSTRACT: Energy is the backbone of the evolution of humanity, it has assisted mankind to endeavor through various ages of history. The quest to obtain energy with minimal expenditure and pollution is still being worked on and will continue on in the future. Even in this modern age, energy production in several developing countries often falls short of energy requirements which results in frequent power cuts. As the world economy continues to grow, energy consumption is expected to continue to grow. Fossil fuel is limited, so it is important to consider other sources of energy e.g. renewables especially solar to meet the energy demands in the future. The world has diverse solar energy sources which are not yet fully explored. This review sheds light on the solar renewable energy and other non-renewable sources of energy available in the world and a comparative analysis of both the energy resources across the world is also included as a separate section titled ‘Comparative analysis’. It also gives a brief overview of the various techniques employed by different countries to overcome the energy crisis through and also a framework for employing such techniques in countries which are lagging in energy production in order to fully avail the benefits of energy sources, which are abundant in the world.
Research Article
An Overview of Renewable Energy Sources and Their Energy Potential for Sustainable Development in Myanmar
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(1), em0071, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3951
ABSTRACT: Myanmar has an abundance of renewable energy resources. It has around 50% of forest cover and the gifted geographic locations with four main large rivers flowing across the country. Besides, its economy is mainly based on agriculture. Among the major renewable energy sources in Myanmar, hydropower plays a key role in electrification of Myanmar while biomass provides the major energy supply for cooking and heating in rural areas. Besides, in the years to come, the utilization of solar energy and wind energy will also be emerging to fulfill the additional energy requirements of the country. Therefore, this study highlighted the renewable energy sources and their future energy potential for increasing the energy self-sufficiency in Myanmar. It was observed that Myanmar had the total installed capacity of approximately 3300 Megawatts from the renewable energy sources in 2016, remaining a large amount of future installed capacity potential. If the sustainability and constraints about renewable energy sources would be managed efficiently, Myanmar could meet the future energy requirements for sustainable development of the country.
Research Article
Ecological Footprint Assessment and Reduction of an Academic Building in Shahdol (India)
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(4), 42, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3910
ABSTRACT: Buildings are responsible for significant natural resource consumption, waste generation, and environmental pollution. Building impacts are generally assessed through life cycle analysis (LCA). This study integrates LCA with the Ecological Footprint indicator for the assessment of a building's impact on the planet. In order to determine ecological impact of a building, a methodology has been established for estimation of Life Cycle Ecological Footprint (LCEFtotal) of the building, as well as to assess its impact due to resource consumption (energy, water, building materials, manpower etc.) and waste assimilation over the lifecycle. For an academic building located in India taken as a case study, the LCEFtotal is found to be 4397.03 gha and the LCEFtotal per unit floor area is 0.60 gha/m2. The average annual Ecological Footprint (EFavg) of the academic building is 73.28 gha/yr that is approximately 20 times more than the actual physical land of the campus. The average annual Ecological Footprint per student (EFavg/student) of the academic building is 0.045 gha/yr/student. If annual grid electricity consumption of the building is replaced by the grid-connected rooftop photovoltaic (GRSPV) system in the ratios of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25%, it can reduce up to 61%, 54%, 31%, and 15% of the total LCEFtotal of the academic building, respectively.
Research Article
Towards a Sustainable Electricity Supply in Nigeria: The Role of Decentralized Renewable Energy System
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(4), 40, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3908
ABSTRACT: In Nigeria, access to reliable and stable supply of electricity is a major challenge for both the urban and rural dwellers. In this study, comprehensive review of accessibility to clean and modern energy in Nigeria has been carried out. Also, this paper examines the potential of renewable energy (RE) resources in Nigeria that can be harnessed for continuous energy supply and the government’s efforts to ensure RE‘s sustainability. Nigeria is endowed with abundant energy resources but the existing electric energy infrastructures are unable to meet the energy demands of teeming population. There is imbalance in energy supply and demand in the country. Over the period from 2000 to 2014, there was an average of about 2.35 billion kWh of energy gap between energy production and energy consumption. The highest electricity consumption per capita recorded so far was 156 kWh in 2012. This makes Nigeria one of the country with the lowest electricity consumption on per capita basis in the world. In order to improve access to clean energy supply and achieve sustainable development, this paper pin points the significance of decentralized renewable energy systems and needs for the government to review the policies on renewable energy development in the country.
Research Article
Multi-generation Renewable Energy System for Dairy Farms: Exergy Analysis
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 37, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/2669
ABSTRACT: Exergy analyses of multi-generational micro gas turbine systems are reported for a grid-independent dairy farm in Ontario, Canada, with an aim of being environmentally benign. Onsite anaerobic digesters utilize farm waste to produce carbon neutral biogas for combustion in the micro gas turbine modules. A range of micro gas turbines coupled with absorption refrigeration units and an organic Rankine cycle are driven by the recovered waste heat to meet the cooling and electrical needs of farm sizes between 250 and 6000 cows. Exergy balances are applied to each component as well the overall system configuration, and exergy efficiencies are obtained. Small farm sizes with one absorption cooling unit are found to be more exergy efficient than large farm sizes with more than one absorption cooling unit, but the difference is less than 0.5%. Most of exergy destruction within the micro gas turbine module occurs in the combustion chamber, which contributes 79% of the exergy destruction of the system. Farm sizes between 250 and 6000 cows are observed to be capable of having their cooling and electricity needs met with micro gas turbines ranging in capacity from 100 to 1000 kW output, while exhibiting similar exergy efficiencies.
Research Article
Analytical Review on the Trends and Present Situation of Large-scale Sustainable Energy Storage Technology
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 31, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/86200
ABSTRACT: Energy storage technology is to achieve large-scale access to renewable energy sources; the key technology for improving efficiency, safety and economy of power systems is also to increase the ratio of clean energy to power generation, and effective means of promoting haze governance. By the end of 2015, the total installed capacity of the global energy storage equipment was about 167 GW, about 2.9% of the world's total installed power; the energy storage equipment in China is 22.8 GW, about 1.7% of the total installed power of the country. By 2050, China's energy storage equipment will reach 200 GW; the market size will reach more than 2 trillion RMB. The existing energy storage technologies include pumped storage, compressed air energy storage, flywheel energy storage, superconducting storage, lead-acid batteries, lithium batteries, sodium sulfur batteries, liquid flow batteries and super capacitors. Different energy storage technologies are applicable to different applications and fields, depending on system power and discharge time, the main application areas of energy storage technology can be divided into three parts: energy management, power bridging and power quality management. Future energy storage market development will focus on distributed energy storage, distributed photovoltaic PV + energy storage, Micro grid, distribution network side and user side and other fields. In recent years, China's energy storage industry has accelerated the pace of development in terms of project planning, policy support and capacity layout, in the next few years, with the rapid development of renewable energy industry, the energy storage market will also enjoy rapid growth. However, the energy storage industry in this country is still in the initial stage of development, and it is mainly based on demonstration and application, the commercial application of energy storage faces the high cost of storage and the imperfect market of power exchange. Energy storage technology route is not mature, lack of energy storage, effective price and effective incentives are both opportunities and challenges.
Research Article
Synthesis of Methyl Esters from Silk Cotton Tree Seed Kernel Oil Using Dimethyl Carbonate and KOH Catalysis
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(2), 20, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/84899
ABSTRACT: Silk cotton seed kernel oil is given as a new source for methyl ester synthesis. Crude silk cotton oil was used as feedstock raw materials for methyl ester production using dimethyl carbonate as solvent and KOH catalysis. The maximum methyl esters yield produced as 97% with a kinematic viscosity (4.25 ± 0.2 5 mm2/sec) was reached at 80 °C by boiling a mixture of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and oil mole ratio as 8:1 with 1.5 wt.% KOH catalyst (oil weight based ) for 75 min. The produced products were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the methyl esters. The properties of the methyl esters from silk cottonseed kernel oil produced met the specifications of ASTM for methyl esters. The kinetics of the KOH-catalyzed transesterification of diglyceride (DG) and triglyceride (TG) with DMC were studied at 40 to 90 °C. We found that the activation energies for transesterification of diglycerides and triglycerides were 89.8 and 83.3 kJ/mol, respectively. The results showed that all the reaction variables studied had beneficial effects.
Research Article
Opportunities and Challenges of AC/DC Transmission Network Planning Considering High Proportion Renewable Energy
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(2), 17, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/83707
ABSTRACT: The time and space distribution characteristics of future high proportion of renewable energy sources will bring unprecedented challenges to the electric power system’s processing and planning, the basic form of electric power system and operating characteristics will have fundamental changes. Based on the research status quo at home and abroad, this paper expounds the four scientific problems of the transmission network planning with high proportion of renewable energy. Respectively, from the network source collaborative planning, transmission network flexible planning. With the distribution network in conjunction with the transmission network planning, transmission planning program comprehensive evaluation and decision-making methods. This paper puts forward the research ideas and framework of transmission network planning considering the high proportion of renewable energy. At the end, the future high proportion of (renewable energy) grid-connected transmission network’s opportunities and challenges are presented.
Research Article
Understanding the Sustainability of Fuel from the Viewpoint of Exergy
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(1), 09, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/76935
ABSTRACT: At the same time of providing a huge amount of energy to the world population (social sustainability) and global economy (economic sustainability), the fuel itself also releases a great amount of emissions to the environment the world people live in in the forms of gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx, CO, CO2, CH4, etc.) and ash compositions (Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, P2O5, SO3, SiO2, TiO2, etc.), seriously impacting the environment (environmental sustainability) for the world population and global economy. Sustainability generally encompasses economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, and social sustainability, and all of these are significantly related to the energy/resource sustainability. This study addresses the sustainability of fuel from the viewpoint of exergy. It is demonstrated that the energy of a fuel is best evaluated by its chemical exergy, and the environmental impact of a fuel can be assessed through the chemical exergy of its emissions (the specific impacts such as toxicity or greenhouse effect are not detailed). Then, the sustainability of fuel can be understood from the viewpoint of exergy through three ways: (a) high chemical exergy of the fuel, (b) high exergy efficiency of the fuel conversion process, and (c) low chemical exergy of the emissions.
Research Article
Balancing Comfort and Energy Use for Sustainable Buildings: Thermal Comfort Modeling using a Space-variant Manikin
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(1), 07, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/63225
ABSTRACT: To help balance comfort and energy use in residential, institutional and commercial buildings in order to make them more sustainable, a thermal comfort model is coupled with a computational fluid dynamic approach. The developed tool provides an effective tool for demand side management of energy use in buildings. The asymmetrical thermal environment in a university cafeteria building is modeled, and a two dimensional numerical simulation is prepared separately of the thermal sensation in the cafeteria. A finite volume formulation is used to provide the temperature distribution around a space-variant manikin, which is in turn utilized to determine the convective heat transfer coefficients for the simulation of thermal sensation around the manikin.
Research Article
Economic and Environmental Considerations for Zero-emission Transport and Thermal Energy Generation on an Energy Autonomous Island
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(1), 05, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/74299
ABSTRACT: The high cost and environmental impact of fossil-fuel energy generation in remote regions can make renewable energy applications more competitive than business-as-usual scenarios. Furthermore, energy and transport are two of the main sectors that significantly contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions. This paper focuses on the generation of thermal energy and the transport sector of a fossil fuel-based energy independent island in Greece. We evaluate (1) technologies for fully renewable thermal energy generation using building-specific solar thermal systems and (2) the replacement of the vehicle fleet of the island with electric and hydrogen-fueled vehicles. The analysis, based on economic and environmental criteria, shows that although solar thermal decreases greenhouse gases by 83%, when compared to the current diesel-based situation, it only becomes economically attractive with subsidy scenarios equal to or higher than 50%. However, in the transport sector, the sum of fuel and maintenance costs of fuel-cell and electric vehicles is found to be 45% lower than that of the current fleet, due to their approximately seven times lower fuel cost. Lastly, it will take approximately six years of use of the new vehicles to balance out the emissions of their manufacturing phase.
Research Article
Preliminary Assessment of Noise Pollution Prevention in Wind Turbines Based on an Exergy Approach
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(2), 12, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201712
ABSTRACT: Most existing methods for energy transformation and use are inadvertently contaminating our water supplies, releasing greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere, emitting compounds that diminish the earth's protective blanket of ozone, and depleting the earth's crust of natural resources. As a result, scientists and engineers are increasingly pursuing sustainable technologies so that costs associated with global warming can be minimized and adverse impact on living organisms can be prevented. A promising sustainable method is to harness energy from the wind via wind turbines. However, the noise generated by wind turbines proves to be one of the most significant hindrances to the extensive use of wind turbines. In this study, noise generation produced by flow over objects is investigated to characterize the noise generated due to flow-structure interaction and aeroacoustics. As a benchmark, flow over a cylinder has been chosen for this study, with the aim of correlating three main characteristics in noise generation. Hence, the generated sound pressure level, exergy destroyed and the normal flow velocity (∪ ∞) are employed to characterize the system in order to relate the exergy destruction to the noise generated in the flow. The correlation has the potential to be used in wind turbine designs to minimize noise pollution due to aerodynamic noise.