EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH

Keyword: environment

28 results found.

Research Article
Transposed Second-Generation Environmental Kuznets Curve, Changing Climate Patterns, and Selected Development Indicators
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(4), em0199, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12274
ABSTRACT: This paper examined the impact of changing climate patterns (represented by square and cubic CO2 emissions) on selected development drivers (proxy by gross domestic product [GDP] per capita [GDPC] and official development assistance [ODA]). Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) provided the theoretical backdrop of this study, referred to as the core second-generation EKC (SGEKC) hypothesis. SGEKC was modified to obtain the transposed SGEKC. The transposed SGEKC was conceptualized based on the one-way criticism of the EKC. An unbalanced PMG (ARDL) method was utilized to investigate the impact of the changing climate patterns on GDPPC–(to capture EKC hypothesis) and ODA–(to capture pollution haven hypothesis) in the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ). This study, therefore, leveraged data from world development indicators between 1970 and 2019. The result showed that the one-way impact of CO2 emissions on GDPC has a long-run N-shaped. The outcome of the GDPC model (in the transposed SGEKC hypothesis) is consistent with the core SGEKC hypothesis. On the other hand, the impact of CO2 emissions on the ODA showed an inverted N-shaped in the long run. The inverted N-shaped relationship does not support pollution-haven hypothesis in the long-run. The results, therefore, imply that the changing climate patterns have a more disruptive impact on income per capita and less on ODA. In the short-run, the result showed the existence of an inverted-N and N-shapes for GDPC (SGEKC does not hold) and ODA (presence of pollution haven) respectively. In conclusion, changing climate patterns present a long-run threat to the economy of WAMZ which in turn could disrupt economic agents’ interactions, de-optimize economic aggregates and economic equilibrium, as well as negatively affect the attainment of a long-run regional development objectives. This study recommends that WAMZ’s government(s) should fast-track the implementation of robust carbon pricing mechanism and abatement policy that would enable climate mitigation policy, improve the regions nationally determined contributions (NDCs) targets, and insulate the economies from policy uncertainty associated with climate change.
Review Article
A Review of the Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Solid Waste Management
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(4), em0196, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/12221
ABSTRACT: Pandemics affect the very existence of human life and their effects going beyond human life to the environment. Natural resources within evolving city milieus require sustainable environmental management. In the COVID-19 pandemic, disposal of face masks in rivers have been witnessed illustrating the implications of COVID-19 on solid waste management and ultimately on the environment. The risks associated and enhanced from improper waste management continues to have adverse impact on water bodies like rivers further aggravating the previous conditions of pollution, which contribute to the effects of climate change. Interestingly, COVID-19 pandemic has had positive environmental effects especially during the lockdowns evidenced by reduced travelling hence reduced global carbon dioxide emissions thereby resulting in improved air quality. However, the pandemic has imposed a further strain on the municipal waste system of many developing economies whose waste management structures and frameworks are still straining from doubled waste generation. As part of the COVID-19 protocol, advisory of wearing face masks was made mandatory for prevention purposes. Unfortunately, a constraint exists in developing protocols towards the management of the used face masks, gloves and PPEs. Increased generation of used face masks and gloves further accelerates indiscriminate dumping of these wastes not only in water bodies but also in dumpsites. Burning of these wastes will lead to increased production of greenhouse gases that have been cited as contributing to climate change. Beyond the COVID-19 pandemic, it is advisable for governments in developing countries to treat waste management as an essential service to avoid future foreseeable and unforeseeable adverse impacts on the environment.
Research Article
Time-Dependent Study of Air Ions in Multiple Zones of Urban Environment
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(2), em0186, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11971
ABSTRACT: The level of air ions considers as an early detection tool for change in the environmental pollutants. The advancement in storage and transportation technology has increased the concentration of air ions in an urban environment. Significant literature reveals that if positive air ions are present in a large number, it has severe health impacts on the human body.
This paper discusses the seasonal scanning of air ions at a traffic junction and green zone. The spot sampling methodology used in this study and assessment of air ions count (AIC) during both summer and winter seasons in 2019 at Nagpur city, India. The study reveals that the critically polluted regions are season invariable concerning air ions as a precursor of pollution. The observation of fewer values in negative ions for both the summer and winter season in traffic intersections grounded the fact that seasonal washout of pollutants is not there, which is observed for green zones. The vehicle counts and its density in the green zone play a critical role in the concentration of negative ions. The air ion ratio (-/+) of the morning, afternoon, and the evening was 1.030, 1.142, and 1.142, respectively in the green zone and having lowest values in the traffic location (morning, afternoon, and the evening was 0.92, 0.83, and 0.77, respectively). The increment or decrement in the ion ratio could help understand the prevailing air quality scenario in the urban macro-environment.
Research Article
Economic and Environmental Analyses of Multi-Generation Renewable Energy System for Dairy Farms
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2022, 6(1), em0174, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11397
ABSTRACT: In the present work, economic and environment analyses of multi-generational micro gas turbine systems are reported for a grid-independent dairy farm in Ontario, Canada. Onsite anaerobic digesters utilize farm waste to produce carbon neutral biogas for combustion in the micro gas turbine modules. A range of micro gas turbines coupled with absorption refrigeration units and an organic Rankine cycle are driven by the recovered waste heat to meet the cooling and electrical needs of farm sizes between 250 and 6000 cows. Farms of these sizes are observed to be capable of having their cooling and electricity needs met with micro gas turbines ranging in capacity from 100 to 1000 kW output. Environmental performance is maximized when the net output of the system just matches the energy requirement of the farm, and produces no excess electricity. Thus to minimize the environmental impact, but remain financially viable, various configurations are suggested for farm sizes under 2000 cows.
Research Article
Estimating the Regional Development in Gems Mining Areas in Brazil
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(4), em0172, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11284
ABSTRACT: The activity of extracting gems can be improved if public policies are adopted to expand the production chain in Brazil. In theory, the mining activity could be enhanced by increasing the financial collection of the taxes through mineral extraction aligned with the characteristics of the local economy. The present study uses a decision tree model for classifying the regional development of Brazilian states with gemstone mining activities, based on the regional data on financial compensation for mineral extraction (CFEM), gross domestic product (GDP), Human development index (HDI), environmental impact, and geo-tourism applying decision tree models. CFEM, HDP, HDI, and geo-tourism were continuous variables, and the environmental impact was discretized as ‘low,’ ‘medium,’ and ‘high.’ The results indicate that regional development is not only directly related to revenue from the financial compensation for mineral extraction. The GDP and environmental impact also influence regional development. The variables geo-tourism and HDI did not appear to exert influence on regional development. We infer that the increase in taxes would not directly benefit the local government or community from the results. Further initiatives and appropriate public policies would be necessary for planning the adequate distribution of the received resources from gem mining to improve regional growth and development.
Review Article
Present and Future Sustainability Development of 3D Metal Printing
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0168, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11132
ABSTRACT: Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing is a relatively new concept and promising technology for industrial production. It is important to investigate the environmental impact of the AM process in light of the environmental critical situation of the Earth. The elimination of some costly prefabrication processes such as molding or post-fabrication stages such as machining and welding required in traditional manufacturing methods favor the AM process and provide beneficial economic advantages. Furthermore, the reduction of manufacturing steps contributes to environmental protection through fewer operations, less material, and energy consumption, and reduced transportation. This study is a review for the assessment of environmental impact and life cycle of some well-known AM technologies for manufacturing metallic parts and components. The fabrication of a pump impeller is simulated through a well-known metal production AM technology and casting process for direct comparison. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is applied to measure the environmental impact in five different stages of pump impeller lifetime with the two different fabrication processes. AM compared to casting has an environmental impact reduction potential of 15%, 20%, 65%, 20%, and 10% respectively in Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidifications Potential (AP), Water Aquatic Eco-toxicity Potential (FAETP), Human Toxicity Potential (HTP), and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion (ODP). Using hydroelectricity and renewable electricity mitigate the environmental impact of the AM process in pre-manufacturing and manufacturing stages temporarily until the advancement of AM technology for consuming less energy. Recommendations for future research to enhance the environmental sustainability of the AM process is proposed as outcomes of this study.
Technical Note
The Ethical Implications of Eco-Individualism on Sustainable Environment
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(3), em0167, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/11092
ABSTRACT: Environmental ethics is a discipline, which specifies and analyzes how human being ought to behave. The significance of ethics is to provide guidelines for Subject-Object relationship (Ich-Es). Some may argue that “Ich-Es” is justified by environmental utilitarianism. The moral implications of environmental materialism/eco-individualism include modification of the ecosystem, scarcity of resources/energy, drought, flooding and extinction of species. The question is how eco-individualism would or environmental self be resolved if not eliminated? Applying the method of philosophical analysis, this research explores the ethical implications of eco-individualism. The objective of the research is to demonstrate how sustainable environmental education (SEE) could help to ameliorate the impacts of eco-individualism. Although sustainable environmental education is challenged by lack professional teaches and funds for its implementation but it reawakens environmental consciousness for the common good of humanity.
Research Article
Improving Perceptions of the Marine Environment by Hands-on Environmental Education: The Case of Hannan City, Osaka, Japan
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(2), em0156, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/10843
ABSTRACT: Coastal and marine environments provide ecosystem services related to human well-being. However, the link between these ecosystem services and lifestyle of nearby populations is rarely recognized. This study proposes environmental events involving a series of hands-on activities, stimulating families’ awareness of both the local foods (rice, fish, and seaweed) and marine environment and linking them to the coastal environment. The present study quantitatively evaluated the changes in adults’ perceptions of Osaka Bay and attitudes on rice and fish consumption through a year-long program. We found that continuous participation (increased visit to the coastal area) effectively changed the participants’ perceptions of Osaka Bay and increased opportunities for eating local foods at home. In addition, the living experiences and realistic experiences increased the participants’ familiarity with Osaka Bay. These results suggest that the proposed program is a powerful tool that can assist marine and conservation education outside school.
Research Article
Exergy Analysis as a Tool for Addressing Climate Change
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2021, 5(2), em0148, https://doi.org/10.21601/ejosdr/9346
ABSTRACT: Exergy is described as a tool for addressing climate change, in particular through identifying and explaining the benefits of sustainable energy, so the benefits can be appreciated by experts and non-experts alike and attained. Exergy can be used to understand climate change measures and to assess and improve energy systems. Exergy also can help better understand the benefits of utilizing sustainable energy by providing more useful and meaningful information than energy provides. Exergy clearly identifies efficiency improvements and reductions in wastes and environmental impacts attributable to sustainable energy. Exergy can also identify better than energy the environmental benefits and economics of energy technologies. Exergy should be applied by engineers and scientists, as well as decision and policy makers, involved in addressing climate change.
Technical Note
4-Stroke CI Engine: An Experimental Comparison of Performance Characteristics for 14% Biodiesel & Pure Diesel
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0142, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8568
ABSTRACT: Global oil reserves are facing great stress because of massive fuel consumption worldwide and the booming world population. These fossil fuels, when processed, affect the environment by releasing greenhouse gases. The outstanding usage of oil inspired many countries to develop alternative fuels. Biodiesel is the future prospect to fulfil the energy needs. It is compatible, ready to use fuel and can easily be deployed in the existing engines by combining it with conventional fuel (diesel). Biodiesel emits a lower amount of greenhouse gases. In this experiment, we first synthesized biodiesel using methanol, NaOH and vegetable oil through transestrification process. After that, we prepared a sample for 14% biodiesel which was then used to run a 4-stroke compression ignition (CI) engine that was attached to the engine testbed. After that, we re-run the same 4-stroke CI Engine with pure-diesel. From the data obtained and subsequent data-analysis, the 14% biodiesel came out to be less efficient (avg. 3% lower brake power and 8.9% lower brake thermal efficiency) and more expensive (avg. 12.8% higher fuel consumption) as compared to pure-diesel.
Research Article
Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Environmental Damages: An Imperative Tool for Decision Making and Sustainability
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0133, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8321
ABSTRACT: Economics being a major field in management has paved its way into environment to tackle the issues concerned with environmental/ecosystem services degradation and is acting as an aspect of human wellbeing and sustainability. Environmental degradation due to pollution is very well known and is measured thoroughly throughout the world. However, the end point impacts are seldom measured and not reported. There are very few responsible companies in the world who are aware about this fact and are reporting these externalities, or the third-party impacts, of their businesses. Various facets of ecosystem services on the other hand are known and have various measurement frameworks as well. The current paper discusses both the aspects i.e. ecosystem services and environmental externalities with respect to assessment techniques and highlights the way in which these fields have developed over the years along with their current methods and trends. The paper will help researchers and policy makers, working in this field, by making them aware about various means by which these estimations can be done so that the gap between environmental degradation and sustainability can be bridged.
Research Article
Advanced Biofuels: Review of Effects on Environment and Socioeconomic Development
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(4), em0129, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/8245
ABSTRACT: In the current scenario when depleting crude oil sources pose a challenge against energy security the advanced biofuels seems as suitable alternate for transport sector. Because of lignocellulosic biomass based production advanced biofuels are considered as environment friendly and they have positive income and employment impacts on the socioeconomic conditions. The study has objectives to test the aforementioned claims on the basis of a review of available literature. It is found that the GHG emission from conventional biofuels is not as much lower as claimed. But the advanced biofuels found to be more environment friendly than their counterparts. The data on socioeconomic impacts of advanced biofuel is scarce and only available for the USA which is reported in this study. It is found that the agriculture sector is significantly benefited sector by the industrial scale production of the advanced biofuels. For the assessment of large scale impacts it is assumed that the dynamics of spreading of socioeconomic impacts of advanced biofuels industry is same as the conventional biofuel industry. On the basis of aforementioned observations, this study also supports the notion of positive environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the advanced biofuels but on the conditions of sustainable and decarbonized supply chain.
Research Article
Critical Pedagogy and Eco-pedagogy: Discussing Ethics and Radical Environmentalism at Business School
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(3), em0123, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/7855
ABSTRACT: This article discusses critical pedagogy and ecopedagogy, which stimulate active citizenship through the lessons of environmentalism, exposing students to the critique of the underlying power structures of society. This article discusses business ethics and sustainability undergraduate course, which served as a case study applying critical pedagogy and ecopedogogy. Critical pedagogy, developed by the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire rejects the idea that education is ever politically neutral, arguing that teaching is an inherently political act. Ecopedagogy, taking critical pedagogy further to include current environmental challenges, has inspired this educational intervention described in this article. Asked to watch and reflect on a documentary about radical environmentalism, the students demonstrated a certain shift in their understanding of conventional ethics, enshrined in anthropocentrism. Their reflections showed that they were both surprised and to a degree shocked about not just the actions of the “radicals”, but also the role of the state, supported by corporate and political lobbies in suppressing protest and the framing of the term “radicalism”. The article concludes in the reflection on what radical environmentalism can teach business students in their role as active citizens.
Editorial
Do Universities Contribute to Sustainable Development?
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2020, 4(2), em0112, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/6429
ABSTRACT: Given the support of the global community of sustainable development, it is perhaps logical to infer that universities will be strong participants in the push to improve the sustainability of society in general, and among the leaders in efforts to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for 2015-2030. To ascertain if this inference is valid, it can be instructive to examine and assess universities for their contributions to the SDGs. This has in fact already begun, with the launch of a new global university ranking of universities, aimed at measuring their contributions to the SDGs. Here we examine how universities contribute to sustainable development, and whether such rankings can motivate and drive initiatives that support sustainable development.
Research Article
Bauxite Mining in the Boké Region (Western Guinea): Method Used and Impacts on Physical Environment
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(3), em0087, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5735
ABSTRACT: This study assesses the environmental impact of bauxite mining and the attempts at managing those impacts around the three different bauxite mining communities “zones” (Sangarédi, Boké, Fria) in the western Guinea. Mining sector is important to the country’s economy; it represents 75 to 85% of resources exports by year, especially bauxite and figures prominently in the government's development priorities, evidenced by the broad movement of reforms undertaken by the authorities since 2010. In this context, these reforms aim both to minimize the risks while maximizing the benefits of the mining activity. This implies among other things, a better distribution of income from the mine, strict compliance with environmental standards, to record activity in a sustainable development perspective. To better understand these reforms and scope, this research evaluates the existing framework and innovations of the new reforms in the context of sustainable development. The researcher conducted a data collection, a series of interviews with resource persons (The local communities, the Ministry of Mines, mining companies and NGOs working in the mining sector), to analyze the Environmental and Socio-economic impact of mine. The results showed that the mining code of 1995 was both inadequate and very rarely applied in the field. In contrast, the 2011 code contains advanced Transparency important for equitable sharing of benefits and stringent measures for environmental protection. Thus, this 2011 mining code is more attractive and oriented towards sustainable development.
Research Article
Spatial Dimensions of Environmental Degradation in the Coastal Areas of South West
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(3), em0088, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3973
ABSTRACT: Environmental degradation is an increasing problem in many parts of the world and the type of ecology prevalent in an area is a major factor that determines the extent to which the area should be degraded. This study examined spatial dimension of environmental degradation prevalent in the coastal areas of south west, Nigeria. It also puts into consideration the level of severity of the environmental problems and the various ecological zones in which the surveyed communities in the study area are located. Environmental degradation is the major concept in this study and the DPSIR framework was used in understanding the concept. Mixed-method approaches, involving qualitative and quantitative methodology for data collection were used. The main techniques for primary data collection were questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was administered proportionally to 1,782 respondents who are coastal dwellers that are involved in different economic activities within the coastal areas. Both descriptive (such as frequencies, percentages, charts) and inferential (One-away Analysis of Variance and Person correlation) statistics were used for data analysis as well as cartographic analysis (map). Result shows that there is a significant variation in the spatial dynamics of environmental degradation across the sampled settlements (p<0.05). Flooding was ranked as the most severe environmental problem by larger percentages of respondents in strand ecological zone (67.0%), in deltaic swamp ecological zone (52.0%) and in mangrove ecological zone (54%). The study concludes that flooding, water hyacinth invasion and pollution which include both sewage pollution in water bodies and open refuse dumping in drainages and along road sides was reported are the most common environmental problems reported by most of the communities, whereas flooding is the most severe environmental problem that cut across the study area. Therefore, the study recommends that, rigorous community efforts are needed to provide leadership and modalities for the management of environmental challenges such as flooding in coastal communities.
Editorial
Advances in Sustainable Development Research
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(2), em0085, https://doi.org/10.29333/ejosdr/5730
ABSTRACT: The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a framework for developing plans and policies for sustainable development, and have spurred an increase in research and activity in this field. There is no single approach to sustainable development, as approaches will vary from country to country, reflecting national and local needs and contexts. But care is needed in moving forward with the Sustainable Development Goals, if their benefits are to be realized. This issue of the European Journal of Sustainable Development Research marks its second anniversary, and demonstrates that the journal has already made a notable impact on the field of sustainable development through having published research on many recent advances.
Research Article
Causes of Environmental Degradation in the Coastal Areas of South West, Nigeria
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2019, 3(2), em0079, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/3969
ABSTRACT: Environmental degradation is an increasing problem in many parts of the world and the type of ecology prevalent in an area plays a major factor that determines the extent of degradation. The study examines causes of environmental degradation in coastal areas of south west Nigeria. It was propelled by environmental challenges, and identified responsible factors in the study area. Environmental degradation is the major concept in this study and the DPSIR framework was used in understanding the concept. The study was carried out using primary and secondary sources of data collection. The main techniques for primary data collection were questionnaire survey and focus group discussions. Data were collected from one thousand, seven hundred and eighty-two (1,782) sampled respondents who are coastal dwellers that are involved in economic activities within the coastal areas. The FGD was conducted in 54 settlements with a minimum of 10 discussants which constitute a mix of the elderly men and women in all the sampled communities. Secondary data were obtained from National Population Commission (2006). Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics as well as cartographic method, and the information from the FGD were analysed using a thematic approach. The study shows that waves breaking along the coastline are the main explanatory factors responsible for coastal erosion (84.0%). Flooding in the settlements where it occurs was mostly attributed to tidal rise/tidal waves (97.0%). Tidal wave was believed to be the major cause of water hyacinth (51.8%). Pollution is caused by a mixed factor of over development of coastal areas, migration to coastal areas, population growth and increased tourism. Soil infertility is caused mainly by sea water infiltration into farmlands especially when farmlands are located too close to coast lines (73%). Over development of the coastal area is mainly responsible for sand mining (67.0%). The study concludes that environmental influence remains strong in the coastal environment. Therefore, concerted community efforts are needed to provide leadership and modalities for the management of environmental challenges in coastal communities. Fundamentally, official attention should be geared towards reducing the rate at which the environment becomes degraded in the coastal communities.
Research Article
Pro-environmental Printing Behaviour as an Indicator to Reduce Paper Cost at Work
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 38, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/2670
ABSTRACT: Today we are facing environmental hitches such as deforestation and global warming, due to which atmospheric CO2 level has increased by 25% since 1850. It is human activities that have created these problems; hence, the resolutions to these encounters lie in behavioral change. Thus, it is only by empowering people that the environment can be protected. This study aims to explore reduction of printing at elementary schools by enhancing pro-environmental printing behavior. Literature review is presented in the following themes – demographic, impact of printing on the environment and pro-environmental printing behavior. An observation method is applied in this study and data is obtained from 108 teachers from seven elementary schools at three different regions in Northwest Friesland, The Netherlands by using digital print data and printers’ observation. The main findings illustrate that pro-environmental behaviour has a positive effect on the printing behavior. This research reveals that the experimental group printed 45% to 51% less during intervention. Therefore by extending pro environmental behaviour, financial and environmental costs can be minimized. This reading recommends directors of the schools to enhance pro-environmental printing behaviour among teachers to reduce both financial and environmental costs measured as use of paper.
Research Article
Relationship between Family Functioning and Environmental Attitudes on the Environmental Behaviours of Students in a Federal University in Edo State, Nigeria
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(3), 28, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/87022
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between family functioning and environmental attitudes toward the student’s environmental behaviours. This study was done in view of guiding both stakeholders and parents including school administrators on proper tips for boosting student behaviours towards the environment in order to build a more friendly and sustainable environment in Edo State and Nigeria as a nation. A correlational study was embarked on. The population and sample of the study consisted of all full time (200Level to 400Level) environmental education students in University of Benin, Nigeria. Thus one hundred and two students constituted the sample for the study. Hence a census sampling technique was utilized in the study. Family functioning was seen to have a stronger influence on the environmental behaviour of the students than their environmental attitude showed to the environment. Meanwhile the combination of family functioning and environmental attitude are seen to have a significant influence on the environmental behaviours of the students.
Research Article
Perception of the Environmental Degradation of Gold Mining on Socio-Economic Variables in Eastern Cameroon, Cameroon
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(2), 23, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/85117
ABSTRACT: Artisanal mining is associated with a number of environmental impacts, including deforestation and land degradation, open pits which pose animal traps and health hazards, and heavy metals contamination of land (water and soil), dust and noise pollution. The study examines the perception of environmental degradation of gold mining sites in eastern Cameroon. Human-environment interaction and distance decay models are the conceptual framework for this study.  This study employed a survey research design through the use of primary data while a purposive sampling technique was utilized. A total of 440 questionnaires were administered to selected households across the localities in the study area. Frequencies, percentages, chart, cross tabulations and chi-square tests were used for the data analysis. In other to achieve the aim of this study, a comparison between the nearby and far away residents were done. The study revealed that mining exploitations have brought about changes in the colour and taste of water in the active mining sites (41.7%). Malaria is the number one type of disease that has caused more damage in the localities (81.6%). Mining activities have successfully enabled children in the active mining sites to abandoned school for mining (75.0%). Inhabitants of unit 1 directly linked the problems facing their economic activities to inadequate arable land for agriculture (33.8%) and inhabitants across the study area correlated the problems facing livestock farming to diseases as a result of mining activities (64.6%). The perceived negative effects of gold mining on different socio-economic variables (such as culture, health, education, economy and livestock) vary significantly depending on the proximity from the mining areas (p<0.05). The study concludes that residents living within and far away from the active mining sites were affected by gold mining activities. However, the most worrisome situation concern people working and living within the active mining sites. Therefore, the study recommends that: companies that are involved in mining activities and the government should embark on development projects such as portable water, schools, hospitals, roads, markets, communications facilities in the affected communities.
Research Article
Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Development
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(1), 11, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/75554
ABSTRACT: Chemical Engineering is a very rich discipline and it is best classified using System Theory (ST) and utilized using the Integrated System Approach (ISA). Environmental Engineering (EE) is a subsystem of Chemical Engineering and also a subsystem of Sustainable Development (SD). In this paper both EE and SD are discussed from a Chemical Engineering point of view utilizing ST and ISA.
Research Article
Understanding the Sustainability of Fuel from the Viewpoint of Exergy
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(1), 09, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/76935
ABSTRACT: At the same time of providing a huge amount of energy to the world population (social sustainability) and global economy (economic sustainability), the fuel itself also releases a great amount of emissions to the environment the world people live in in the forms of gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx, CO, CO2, CH4, etc.) and ash compositions (Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, P2O5, SO3, SiO2, TiO2, etc.), seriously impacting the environment (environmental sustainability) for the world population and global economy. Sustainability generally encompasses economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, and social sustainability, and all of these are significantly related to the energy/resource sustainability. This study addresses the sustainability of fuel from the viewpoint of exergy. It is demonstrated that the energy of a fuel is best evaluated by its chemical exergy, and the environmental impact of a fuel can be assessed through the chemical exergy of its emissions (the specific impacts such as toxicity or greenhouse effect are not detailed). Then, the sustainability of fuel can be understood from the viewpoint of exergy through three ways: (a) high chemical exergy of the fuel, (b) high exergy efficiency of the fuel conversion process, and (c) low chemical exergy of the emissions.
Editorial
One Year of Sustainable Development Research
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2018, 2(1), 01, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr/82777
ABSTRACT: This issue of the European Journal of Sustainable Development Research marks its first anniversary, and demonstrates that the journal has already made a notable impact on the field of sustainable development through having published research on many recent advances. The topics likely to be addressed in the future, and thus covered in the European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, are likely to revolve around the 17 Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Research Article
A Study of the New Environmental Paradigm Scale in the Context of Iran
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(2), 14, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201714
ABSTRACT: Industrial and technological change and increased urbanization has altered the face of nature. And nature is being consumed in the production of material goods. Environmental crises such as the condition of Lake Urumieh in north western Iran demonstrates that unregulated use of the natural environment disrupts ecosystems that threaten the survival of plant species, animals and humans. Environmental crises can be facilitated by human's inappropriate activities that occurs as the result of people's attitude to the environment. The aim of this paper is a revision of the New Environmental Paradigm and an evaluation on the NEP scale of the citizens of Tabriz. Results of exploration of related factors determined four dimensions, while evaluations determined by the Dunlap and Van Liere scale showed five dimensions. Average for the factor of citizen attitude in protecting the environment was determined as moderate. Also, there was difference for averages for the factor of citizen attitude to the environment according to gender. Results showed that women had a more supportive attitude than did men. The relationship between factors of education and economic prosperity to the environmental attitude is being shown a more supportive attitude to the environment under conditions of higher-level education and economic prosperity. Regression analysis showed that education explains approximately eleven percent of variance in terms of environmental attitude.
Research Article
Regulation of Nanorefrigerant Use: A Proactive Measure Against Possible Undesirable Health and Environmental Implications
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(2), 9, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201709
ABSTRACT: Recent research studies have shown the very high potentials nanotechnology application has in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry for improving the thermophysical properties of refrigerants and lubricants hence leading to systems with higher COP and much reduced size. The successes achieved with nanorefrigerants are connected to the improved technology for the preparation of nanofluids that has led to achieving more homogeneous and stable mixture of the base fluid and nanoparticle. However, available literatures point to the fact that nanoparticles can find its way into the human cells and as such is a potential health risk for humans and animals. At present, emphasis appears to concentrate more on the technological successes achieved with nanorefrigerants, like improved thermal conductivity, nucleate boiling and boiling heat transfer coefficient without factoring in much the potential health implications of adopting it. This paper therefore looked at the potential health consequences of adopting nanotechnology and called for an early regulatory framework to guard against any unforeseen health issues. Areas of future research were also suggested.
Research Article
Women and the Environment: Ecofeministic Approach to Environmental Attitudes and Behavior in Iran
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(1), 4, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201704
ABSTRACT: In the contemporary world industry, urbanization, and capitalism have destroyed the environment on such a large-scale that to solve this problem would require expensive and long-term treatments. Public participation is a low-cost way to address these issues. Women are able to protect the environment because some of the environment's problems begin from the home. The current research is using the survey based on quantitative research method to investigate the theory of ecofeminism, the attitudes and behaviors of women and men regarding the environment. Data collected thorugh questionnaire and multiple choice questions. Results of this study show that women pay more attention to the environment. Efficient consumption of energy, use of public transport, waste separation, reuse of certain goods, and the avoidance of waste dumping in the environment are significant for women, but men show little interest in these behaviors. Women are more supportive of the environment than men are.
Research Article
Sustainable Development: A Vital Quest
European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 2017, 1(1), 2, https://doi.org/10.20897/ejosdr.201702
ABSTRACT: A high-level overview of the discipline of sustainable development is presented, aimed at providing the context and setting for research on and applications of sustainable development, in this lead article to a new journal. The status of sustainable development and its progress are described, as are challenges and needs that may impact its development. Definitions of sustainable development and its interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary dimensions are discussed and contrasted with single-discipline approaches. Examples of interpretations and needs for sustainable development are provided from such fields as energy, resource management, and engineering. Attitudes towards sustainable development are investigated, as is progress. Finally, an illustrative case study is described of a large sustainable development initiative, comprised of several integrated measures and activities.